Restructuring butterfat through blending and chemical interesterification. 3. Rheology
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- Rousseau, D., Hill, A.R. & Marangoni, A.G. J Am Oil Chem Soc (1996) 73: 983. doi:10.1007/BF02523405
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Interesterified and noninteresterified butterfat-canola oil blends, ranging from 100% butterfat to 60∶40 butterfat-canola oil (w/w) in 10% increments, were evaluated for hardness index (HI), dropping point, viscosity, and viscoelastic properties at small deformation. Both blending and chemical interesterification diminished HI in a nonlinear fashion. HI changes in interesterified blends were more pronounced than in noninteresterified blends. Dropping points yielded information on the structure of the blends. Butterfat’s dropping point (DP) was 34.4°C, whereas that of interesterified butterfat was 37.0°C, which is indicative of a more structured network for the latter. DP values of blends with 60–90% butterfat (interesterified vs. noninteresterified) were not significantly different (P<0.05). Interesterified blends had a higher crystallization onset temperature than did noninteresterified blends. All blends in the liquid state displayed Newtonian behavior. Oscillatory frequency sweep measurements at small amplitude showed that interesterified blends generally had lower storage moduli (G′) than their noninteresterified counterparts. BothG′ andG″ were frequency-dependent. Replacement of 30% butterfat by canola oil led to notable changes in small deformation measurements, whereas replacement of 20% butterfat led to big changes in large deformation measurements.