Climatic hazards warning process in Bangladesh: Experience of, and lessons from, the 1991 April cyclone
- C. Emdad Haque
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Science and technology cannot control entirely the causes of natural hazards. However, by using multifaceted programs to modify the physical and human use systems, the potential losses from disasters can effectively be minized. Predicting, identifying, monitoring, and forecasting extreme meteorological events are the preliminary actions towards mitigating the cyclone-loss potential of coastal inhabitants, but without the successful dissemination of forecasts and relevant information, and without appropriate responses by the potential victims, the loss potential would probably remain the same. This study examines the process through which warning of the impending disastrous cyclone of April 1991 was received by the local communities and disseminated throughout the coastal regions of Bangladesh. It is found that identification of the threatening condition due to atmospheric disturbance, monitoring of the hazard event, and dissemination of the cyclone warning were each very successful. However, due to a number of socioeconomic and cognitive factors, the reactions and responses of coastal inhabitants to the warning were in general passive, resulting in a colossal loss, both at the individual and national level. The study recommends that the hazard mitigation policies should be integrated with national economic development plans and programs. Specifically, it is suggested that, in order to attain its goals, the cyclone warning system should regard the aspects of human response to warnings as a constituent part and accommodate human dimensions in its operational design.
- Anthes, R. A. 1982. Tropical cyclones: Their evolution, structure and effects. Monograph 41. American Meteorological Society, Boston, Massachusetts.
- Alexander, D. 1993. Natural disasters. Chapman and Hall, New York.
- BDRCS (Bangladesh Red Crescent Society) 1992. A guide to volunteer training. Cyclone Preparedness Program, Dhaka (in Bengali).
- Burton, I. 1972. Cultural and personality variables in the perception of natural hazards. Pages 184–195in J. F. Wohlwill and D. H. Carson (eds.), Environment and social sciences: Perspectives and applications. American Psychological Association, Inc., Washington, DC. CrossRef
- Burton, I., R. W. Kates, and G. F. White. 1993. The environment as hazard, 2nd ed. Guilford Press, New York.
- Climate Analysis Center. 1991. Weekly Climate Bulletin 91/18, 4 May 1991. National Weather Service, NOAA, United States Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.
- Crossette, B. 1991. Bangladesh toll now laid in part to poor aid plan.The New York Times 4 May, New York.
- Emanuel, K. A. 1988. Toward a general theory of hurricanes.American Scientist 76: 371–379.
- Foster, H. D. 1980. Disaster planning: The preservation of life and property. Springer, New York.
- Frank, N. L., and S. A. Hossain. 1971. The deadliest tropical cyclone in history?Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 52: 438–444. CrossRef
- Haque, C. E. 1988. Impact of river-bank erosion in the Brahma-putra-Jamuna floodplain: A study of population displacement and human response strategies. PhD dissertation. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
- Haque, C. E., and D. Blair. 1992. Vulnerability to tropical cyclones: Evidence from the April 1991 cyclone in coastal Bangladesh.Disasters 16: 217–229.
- Hastenrath, P., and P. J. Lamb. 1979. Climate atlas of the Indian Ocean. Part I: Surface climate and atmospheric circlation. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
- Hewitt, K., and I. Burton. 1971. The hazardousness of a place: A regional ecology of damaging events. Department of Geography, University of Toronto, Toronto.
- Islam, M. A. 1971. Human adjustment to cyclone hazards: A case study of Char Jabbar. Natural Hazards Research Working Paper No. 18. University of Toronto, Toronto.
- Islam, M. A. 1974. Tropical cyclone, coastal Bangladesh. Pages 19–24in G. F. White (ed.), Natural hazards: Local, national, global. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Islam, M. S., and others. 1992. A case study on April 1991 cyclone of Bangladesh. Paper presented at the workshop: Improving cyclone warning response and mitigation. 19–30 January 1992, Dhaka.
- Ittelson, W. H., and others. 1974. An introduction to environmental psychology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
- Khalil, G. M. 1992. Cyclones and storm surges in Bangladesh: Some mitigative measures.Natural Hazards 6: 11–24. CrossRef
- Mileti, D. S., and J. H. Sorensen. 1988. Planning and implementing warning systems. Pages 331–345in M. Lystad (ed.), Mental health response to mass emergencies. Brunner-Mazel.
- Mirza, M. K. and S. Paul. 1992. Natural disasters and the environment of Bangladesh. Center for Environmental Studies and Research, Dhaka (in Bengali).
- Mishra, D. K., and H. R. Prakash. 1982. An evaluation of the Andhra Pradesh cyclone shelters programme: Guidelines for the Orissa programme.Disasters 6: 250–255. CrossRef
- Pramanik, M. A. 1981. The warning and dissemination system for disaster and environmental hazards in Bangladesh. Paper presented at: National disaster preparedness seminar. Dhaka, 10–14 February.
- Quarantelli, E. L. 1984. Perceptions and reactions to emergency warnings of sudden hazards.Ekistics 51: 511–515.
- Raghavendra, V. K. 1973. A statistical analysis of the number of tropical storms and depressions in the Bay of Bengal during 1890–1969.Indian Journal of Meteorological Geophysics 24: 125–130.
- Rahman, M. 1991. Vulnerability syndrome and the question of peasants' adjustment to riverbank erosion and flood in Bangladesh. Pages 170–190in K. M. Elahi, K. S. Ahmed, and M. Mafizuddin (eds.), Riverbank erosion, flood and population displacement in Bangladesh. Riverbank Erosion Impact Study, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka.
- Sevenhuysen, G. P. 1991. Report on cyclone disaster response in Bangladesh. Disaster Research Unit, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
- Simon, H. A. 1956. Rational choice and the structure of the environment.Psychological Review 63: 129–138. CrossRef
- Simpson-Housley, P., and P. Bradshaw. 1978. Personality and the perception of earthquake hazard.Australian Geographical Studies 16: 65–72. CrossRef
- Sims, J. H., and D. D. Baumann. 1983. Educational programmes and human response to natural hazards.Environment and Behaviour 15: 165–189.
- Sinha, A. K., and S. U. Avrani. 1984. The disaster warning process: A study of the 1981 Gujarat cyclone.Disasters 8 (1): 67–73.
- Smith, K. 1992. Environmental hazards: Assessing risk and reducing disaster. Routledge, New York.
- Walmsley, D. J., and G. J. Lewis. 1984. Human geography: Behavioural approaches. Longman, New York.
- Warrick, R. A., and others. 1981. Four communities under ash. Monograph 34, Institute of Behavioural Science, University of Colorado, Boulder.
- White, G. F., and J. E. Hass. 1974. Assessment of research on natural hazards. MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts.
- Williams, H. B. 1964. Human factors in warning and response systems. Pages 75–83in G. Grosser and others (eds.), The threat of impending disaster: Contributions to the psychology of stress. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Climatic hazards warning process in Bangladesh: Experience of, and lessons from, the 1991 April cyclone
Volume 19, Issue 5 , pp 719-734
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- C. Emdad Haque (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Geography, Brandon University, R7A 6A9, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada