Prioritizing ecological and human welfare risks from environmental stresses
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The ecological systems of Earth are subjected to a wide array of environmental stresses resulting from human activities. The development of appropriate environmental protection and management policies and the appropriate allocation of resources across environmental stresses require a systematic evaluation of relative risks. The data and methodologies for comprehensive ecological risk assessment do not exist, yet we do have considerable understanding of econological stress-response relationships. A methodology is presented to utilize present knowledge for assignment of relative risks to ecological systems and human welfare from anthropogenic stresses. The resultant priorities, developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative risk reduction project, highlight global climate change, habitat alteration, stratospheric ozone depletion, and species depletion as the highest environmental risks, significantly diverging from the present emphasis by EPA and the public on toxic chemical issues. Enhanced attention to ecological issues by EPA and development of ecological risk assessment methodologies that value ecological and economic issues equitably are key recommendations.
- EPA 1987a. Unfinished business: A comparative assessment of environmental problems. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy Analysis, Washington, DC.
- EPA. 1987b. Unfinished business: A comparative assessment of environmental problems. Appendix III. Ecological risk work group. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy Analysis, Washington, DC.
- EPA. 1990a. Reducing risk: Setting priorities and strategies for environmental protection. The report of the Science Advisory Board Relative Risk Reduction Strategies Committee. SAB-EC-90-021. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 26 pp.
- EPA. 1990b. The report of the Ecology and Welfare Subcommittee, Relative Risk Reduction Project. Reducing risk. Appendix A. SAB-EC-90-021A. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 77 pp.
- EPA. 1990c. The report of the Human Health Subcommittee, Relative Risk Reduction Project. Reducing risk. Appendix B. SAB-EC-90-021B. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 182 pp.
- EPA. 1990d. The report of the Strategic Options Subcommittee, Relative Risk Reduction Project. Reducing risk. Appendix C. SAB-EC-90-021C. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 140 pp.
- Harwell, M. A., and C. C. Harwell. 1989. Environmental decision making in the presence of uncertainty. Pages 517–540in S. A. Levin, M. A. Harwell, J. R. Kelly, and K. D. Kimball (eds.), Ecotoxicology: Problems and approaches. Springer-Verlag, New York, 547 pp.
- Harwell, M. A., and J. R. Kelly. 1986. Ecosystems Research Center workshop on ecological effects from environmental stresses. ERC-141. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 42 pp.
- Harwell, M. A., C. C. Harwell, D. A. Weinstein, and J. R. Kelly. 1990. Characterizing ecosystem responses to stress. Pages 91–115in W. Grodzinski, E. B. Cowling, and A. I. Breymeyer, with A. S. Phillips, S. I. Auerbach, A. M. Bartuska, and M. A. Harwell (eds.) Ecological risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 415 pp.
- Roberts, L. 1990. News and comment: counting on science at EPA.Science 249:616–618.
- Prioritizing ecological and human welfare risks from environmental stresses
Volume 16, Issue 4 , pp 451-464
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Ecological risk assessment
- Relative risk reduction
- Welfare risks
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 33149, Miami, Florida, USA
- 2. Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, 48824, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
- 3. Science Advisory Board, US Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street SW, 20460, Washington DC, USA