Environmental Management

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 331–337

Assessing potential bioavailability of metals in sediments: A proposed approach


  • Gerald T. Ankley
    • US Environmental Protection Agency
  • Nelson A. Thomas
    • US Environmental Protection Agency
  • Dominic M. Di Toro
    • Hydroqual, Inc.
  • David J. Hansen
    • US Environmental Protection Agency
  • John D. Mahony
    • Chemistry DepartmentManhattan College
  • Walter J. Berry
    • SAIC Corporation
  • Richard C. Swartz
    • US Environmental Protection AgencyHatfield Marine Science Center Marine Science Drive
  • Robert A. Hoke
    • SAIC Corporation
  • A. Wayne Garrison
    • US Environmental Protection Agency
  • Herbert E. Allen
    • Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Delaware
  • Christopher S. Zarba
    • US Environmental Protection Agency

DOI: 10.1007/BF02393863

Cite this article as:
Ankley, G.T., Thomas, N.A., Di Toro, D.M. et al. Environmental Management (1994) 18: 331. doi:10.1007/BF02393863


Due to anthropogenic inputs, elevated concentrations of metals frequently occur in aquatic sediments. In order to make defensible estimates of the potential risk of metals in sediments and/or develop sediment quality criteria for metals, it is essential to identify that fraction of the total metal in the sediments that is bioavailable. Studies with a variety of benthic invertebrates indicate that interstitial (pore) water concentrations of metals correspond very well with the bioavailability of metals in test sediments. Many factors may influence pore water concentrations of metals; however, in anaerobic sediments a key phase controlling partitioning of several cationic metals (cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc, copper) into pore water is acid volatile sulfide (AVS). In this paper, we present an overview of the technical basis for predicting bioavailability of cationic metals to benthic organisms based on pore water metal concentrations and metal-AVS relationships. Included are discussions of the advantages and limitations of metal bioavailability predictions based on these parameters, relative both to site-specific assessments and the development of sediment quality criteria.

Key words

SedimentMetalBioavailabilityToxicitySediment quality criteria

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1994