Kimura, T. Primates (1992) 33: 465. doi:10.1007/BF02381150
Quadrupedal locomotion was mechanically studied for four species of primates, the chimpanzee, the rhesus macaque, the tufted capuchin, and the ring-tailed lemur, from low to high speeds of about two to ten times the anterior trunk length per second. A wide variety of locomotor patterns was observed during the high-speed locomotion of these primates. Positive correlations were observed between the peak magnitude of foot force components and speed. The differentiation of the foot force between the forelimb and the hindlimb did not largely change with a change of speed for each species. The vertical component and the accelerating component for the rhesus macaque were relatively large in the forelimb from low- to high-speed locomotion. The rhesus macaque, which habitually locomotes on the ground, differed in the quadrupedal locomotion from the other relatively arboreal primates, for which the hindlimb was clearly dominant in their dynamic force-producing distribution between the forelimbs and the hindlimbs. The previously reported locomotor difference, which was indicated among primates from the foot force pattern between the forelimb and the hindlimb during walking, also applied to high-speed locomotion.