Measuring the effects of the guilty but mentally Ill (GBMI) verdict
We studied effects of guilty but mentally ill (GBMI) legislation on use of the insanity defense in Georgia using data on all defendants entering an insanity plea before (1976–1981) and after (1982–1985) the introduction of the GBMI verdict. In contrast to earlier studies, our results indicated that GBMI did decrease the likelihood of an insanity verdict and affected the composition of those found not guilty by reason of insanity. Defendants pleading insanity and found GBMI were typically white males with a serious mental disorder, charged with murder or robbery in which an unrelated female victim was involved. The data also indicated that defendants who pleaded insanity and were found GBMI received harsher sentences than their guilty counterparts. We conclude that the GBMI verdict will make the insanity plea a less appealing option for mentally ill defendants.
- Allison, P. D. (1984).Event history analysis: Regression for longitudinal event data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Appelbaum, P. (1982). The insanity defense: New calls for reform.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 33, 13–14.
- Benham v. Edwards, 501 F. Supp. 1050, 1076 (N.D. Ga. 1980).
- Blossfeld, H., Hamerle, A., & Mayer, K. U. (1989).Event history analysis: Statistical theory and application in the social sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Blunt, L. W., Stock, H. V. (1985). Guilty but mentally ill: An alternative verdict.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3, 49–67.
- Callahan, L. A., Steadman, H. J., McGreevy, M. A., & Robbins, P. C. (1991). The volume and composition of insanity defense pleas: An eight state study.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 19, 331–338.
- Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963).Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
- Criss, M. L., & Racine, D. R. (1980). Impact of change in legal standard for those adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity.Bulletin of American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 8 261–271.
- Faulstich, M. E. (1985). Effects upon social perceptions of the insanity plea.Psychological Reports, 55, 183–187.
- Fentiman, L. C. (1985). Gulty but mentally ill: The real verdict is guilty.Boston College Law Review, 26, 603–653.
- Finkel, J. J. (1990). Defacto departures from insanity instruction.Law and Human Behavior, 14, 105–122. CrossRef
- Fox, J. (1984). Detecting changes of level and slope in repeated measures data.Sociological Methods and Research, 12, 263–277.
- Georgia Code Annotated § 17-7-131.
- Hans, V. P. (1986). An analysis of public attitudes toward the insanity defense.Criminology, 24, 393–413. CrossRef
- Hans, V. P., & Slater, D. (1984). Plain crazy: Lay definitions of legal insanity.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 105–114. CrossRef
- Hauser S. (1981). Commitment and release of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity: A Georgia perspective.Georgia Law Review, 15, 1065–1103.
- Hawkins, M. R., & Pasewark, R. A. (1983). Characteristics of persons utilizing the insanity plea.Psychological Reports, 53, 191–195.
- Janofsky, J. S., Vandeville, M. B., & Rappeport, J. R. (1989). Defendants pleading insanity: An analysis of outcome.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 17, 203–210.
- Jeffrey, R. W., Pasewark, R. A., & Bieber, S. (1988). Insanity plea: Predicting not guilty by reason of insanity adjudications.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 16, 35–39.
- Keilitz, I. (1987). Researching and reforming the insanity defense.Rutgers Law Review, 39, 289–322.
- Kirkland v. State, 166 Ga. App. 578 (1983).
- Klofas, J., & Weisheit, R. (1986). Pleading guilty but mentally ill: Adversarial justice and mental health.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 9, 491–501. CrossRef
- Lewis-Beck, M. S. (1986).Interrupted time series in new tools for social scientists, W. D. Berry & M. S. Lewis-Beck (Eds.), Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 209–240.
- Mackay, R. D., & Kopelman, J. (1988). The operation of the “guilty but mentally ill” verdict in Pennsylvania.Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 247–268.
- McGraw, B., Farthing-Capowich, D., & Keilitz, I. (1985). The guilty but mentally ill plea and verdict: Current State of the knowledge.Villanova Law Review, 30, 117–191.
- Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated 768.36 (1982).
- Moran, R. (1985). The origin of insanity as a special verdict: The trial for treason of James Hadfield (1800).Law and Society Review, 19, 601–633.
- Pasewark, R. A., & Seidenzahl, D., (1979). Opinions concerning the insanity plea and criminality among mental patients.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 7, 199–202.
- Pasewark, R. A., & McGinley, H. (1985). Insanity plea: National survey of frequency and success.Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 13, 101–108.
- People v. DeWitt, 463 N.E. 2d 742 (211 App. 1984).
- People v. McQuillan, 393 Mich. 511, 221 N.W. 2d 569 (1974).
- People v. Sorna, 88 Mich. App. 351, 362, 276 N. W. 2d 892 (1979).
- Petrella, R. C., Benedek, E. P., Bank, S. C., & Packer, I. K. (1985). Examining the application of the guilty and mentally ill verdict in Michigan.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36, 254–260.
- Schmidt, P., & Whitte, A. D. (1988).Predicting recidivism using survival models, New York: Springer-Verlag.
- Simonton, D. K. (1977). Cross-sectional time-series experiments: Some suggested statistical analyses.Psychological Bulletin, 84, 489–502.
- Slobogin, C. (1985). The guilty but mentally ill verdict: An idea whose time should not have come.George Washington Law Review, 53, 494–527.
- Smith, G. A., & Hall, J. A. (1982). Evaluating Michigan's guilty but mentally ill verdict: An empirical study.Journal of Law Reform, 16, 75–112.
- Steadman, J. J. (1985). Empirical research on the insanity defense.Annals, 477, 58–71.
- Steadman, H. J., & Cocozza, J. J. (1978) Public perceptions of the criminally insane.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 29, 457–459.
- Steadman, H. J., Keitner, L., Braff, J., & Arvanites, T. (1983). Factors associated with a successful insanity plea.American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 401–405.
- Stokman, C. L. J., & Heiber, P. G. (1984). The insanity defense reform act in New York State, 1980–1983.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 367–384. CrossRef
- Measuring the effects of the guilty but mentally Ill (GBMI) verdict
Law and Human Behavior
Volume 16, Issue 4 , pp 447-462
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links