, Volume 65, Issue 4, pp 457–474

Maximum likelihood estimation of latent interaction effects with the LMS method


DOI: 10.1007/BF02296338

Cite this article as:
Klein, A. & Moosbrugger, H. Psychometrika (2000) 65: 457. doi:10.1007/BF02296338


In the context of structural equation modeling, a general interaction model with multiple latent interaction effects is introduced. A stochastic analysis represents the nonnormal distribution of the joint indicator vector as a finite mixture of normal distributions. The Latent Moderated Structural Equations (LMS) approach is a new method developed for the analysis of the general interaction model that utilizes the mixture distribution and provides a ML estimation of model parameters by adapting the EM algorithm. The finite sample properties and the robustness of LMS are discussed. Finally, the applicability of the new method is illustrated by an empirical example.

Key words

latent interaction effectsmixture distributionML estimationstructural equation modeling (SEM)EM algorithm

Copyright information

© The Psychometric Society 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johann Wolfgang Goethe-UniversityFrankfurt Am MainGermany
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyFrankfurt am MainGermany