March 1996, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 341-356
A framework for classifying state involuntary commitment statutes
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A typology for classifying state involuntary commitment statutes is described. The basis for classifying the statutes was the severity of the state criteria, the number of possible alternatives available for commitment purposes and, the need for evidence. Based on the classification system, an empirical analysis examined the relationship between the stringency levels of the commitment statutes and rates of admission to state and county hospitals. A log linear regression model was specified using admission rates as the dependent variable and a host of sociodemographic and other supply factors as independent variables. The results of the analysis support the hypothesis that states with stringent involuntary commitment statutes have fewer admissions to state and county hospitals. The typology used in this analysis has numerous public policy applications and can be updated easily as states change their statute criteria.
This research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health's National Association of State Mental Health Policy Directors Fellows Program.
Abramson, M.F. (1972). The criminalization of Mentally Disordered Behavior: Possible side-effect of a new mental health law.Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 23(4), 101–105.
Applebaum, P.S. (1982). Civil commitment: Is the pendulum changing direction?Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 33, 703–704.
Bagby, R.M., & Atkinson, L. (1988). The effects of legislative reform on civil commitment admission rates: A critical analysis.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6(1), 45–61.
Beis, E. (1983). State involuntary commitment statues.Mental Disability Law Reporter, 7(4).
Belcher, J.R. (1988). Are jails replacing the mental health system for the homeless mentally ill?Community Mental Health Journal, 24(3), 185–195.PubMed
Brakel, S.J., Parry, J., & Weiner, B.A. (1985).The mentally disabled and the law (3rd ed.). Chicago: American Bar Foundation.
Brown, J., & Rayne, J.T. (1989). Some ethical considerations in defensive psychiatry: A case study.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 534–541.PubMed
Cocozza, J.J., & Steadman, H.J. (1989). The failure of psychiatric predictions of dangerousness: Clear and convincing evidence.Rutgers Law Review, 29, 1084–1101.
Durham, M.L. (1989). The impact of deinstitutionalization on the current treatment of the mentally ill.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 12, 117–131.PubMed
Durham, M.L., & La Fond, J.Q. (1985). The empirical consequences and policy implications of broadening the statutory criteria for civil commitment.Yale Law and Policy Review, III, 395–446.
Durham, M.L., & Pierce, G.L. (1986). Legal intervention in civil commitment: The impact of broadened commitment criteria.ANNALS, American Academy of Political and Social Science, 484, 42–55.
Faulkner, L.R., Bloom, J.D., & Kundahl-Stanley, K. (1982). Effects of a new involuntary commitment law: Expectations and reality.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 10, 249–259.
Fisher, W.H., & Pierce, G.L. (1985). Civil commitment reform: Context and consequences.Psychiatric Quarterly, 57, 217–229.PubMed
Hasebe, T., & John MacRae, J. (1987). A ten-year study of civil commitments in Washington state.Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 38, 983–987.
Haupt, D.N., & Ehrlich, S.M. (1980). The impact of a new state commitment law on psychiatric patient careers.Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 31, 745–751.
Hiday, V.A. (1988). Civil commitment: A review of empirical research.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6(1), 15–43.
Hiday, V.A. (1977). Reformed commitment procedures: An empirical study in the courtroom.Laws and Society, 11, 651–666.
Kiesler, C.A., & Sibulkin, A.E. (1987).Mental Hospitalization. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Kirk, A. (1989). The prediction of violent behavior during short-term civil commitment.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 17, 345–353.
Lambrinos, J., & Rubin, J. (1981). The determinants of average daily census in public mental hospitals: A simultaneous model.Medical Care, 19, 895–906.PubMed
Lidz, C.W., Mulvey, E.P., Appelbaum, P.S., & Cleveland, S. (1989). Commitment: The consistency of clinicians and the use of legal standards.American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 176–181.
Luckey, J.W., & Berman, J.J. (1981). Effects of new commitment laws on the mental health system.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 479–483.PubMed
Maloy, K.A. (1990).Caring and controlling: The political and socioeconomic factors shaping state civil commitment laws. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston.
Manderscheid, R. (1989).Number of resident patients, total admissions, net releases, and deaths, state and county mental hospitals: United States, 1950–1988. Materials received by request from the Statistical Research Branch, Division of Applied and Services Research, Center for Mental Health Services, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration, Washington, DC.
McCafferty, G., & Dooley, J. (1990). Involuntary outpatient commitment: An update.Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter, 14, 277–287.
McFarland, B., Faulkner, L.R., Bloom, J.D., Hallaux, R.J., & Bray, J.D. (1989). Investigators' and judges' opinions about civil commitment.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 17(1), 15–24.
Mechanic, D., & Aiken, L.H. (1987). Improving the care of patients with chronic mental illness.New England Journal of Medicine, 317, 1634–1638.PubMed
Miller, R.D. (1985). Involuntary civil commitment: Legal versus clinical paternalism. In S. Rachlin (Ed.),Legal encroachment on psychiatric practice. New Directions for Mental Health Services, No. 25, 13–24.
Monahan, J. (1977). Empirical analysis of civil commitment: Critique and context.Law and Society Review, 11, 619–628.
Monahan, J. (1981).Predicting violent behavior: An assessment of clinical techniques. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
National Center for Health Statistics. (1986).Vital and health statistics, nursing home characteristics: 1986 inventory of long-term care places (Series 14, No. 33). Washington, DC: Author.
Pierce, G.L., Durham, M.L., & Fisher, W.H. (1986). The impact of public policy and publicity on admissions to state mental hospitals.Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 11, 41–67.
Peters, R., Miller, K.S., Schmidt, W., & Meeter, D. (1987). The effects of statutory change on the civil commitment of the mentally ill.Law and Human Behavior, 11,(2), 73–99.PubMed
Reisner, R., & Slobogin, C. (1990).Law and the Mental Health System (2nd ed.). St. Paul: West Publishing Co.
Sosowsky, L. (1978). Crime and violence among mental patients reconsidered in view of the new legal relationship between the state and the mentally ill.American Journal of Psychiatry, 135(1), 33–42.PubMed
Steadman, H.J., Monahan, J., Duffee, B., Hartstone, E., & Robbins, P.C. (1984). The impact of state mental hospital deinstitutionalization on united states prison populations, 1968–1978.The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 75, 474–490.
Wanck, B. (1984). Two decades of involuntary hospitalization legislation.American Journal of Psychiatry, 141(1), 33–38.PubMed
Warren, C.A. (1977). Involuntary commitment for mental disorder: The application of California's Lanterman-Petris-Short act.Law and Society Review, 11, 628.
Wexler, D.B. (1983). The structure of civil commitment.Law and Human Behavior, 7(1), 1–18.
- A framework for classifying state involuntary commitment statutes
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
Volume 23, Issue 4 , pp 341-356
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Human Sciences Press
- Additional Links