Toxicity of heavy metals and salts to eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.)
Received: 11 January 1974 Accepted: 31 March 1974 DOI:
Cite this article as: Stanley, R.A. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1974) 2: 331. doi:10.1007/BF02047098 Abstract
The toxicity of various heavy metals and salts to Eurasian watermilfoil (
Myriophyllum spicatum L.) was determined under controlled growth conditions. Toxicants were added to water or to soil in systems with and without woods earth in the substrate.
Fifty precent inhibition of root weight occurred with concentrations of 0.25 ppm Cu
+2, 1.9 ppm Cr 2O 7 −2, 3.4 ppm Hg +2, 2.9 ppm AsO 2 −1, 7.4 ppm Cd +2, 2.5 ppm Al +3, 9.9 ppm Cr +3, 41.2 ppm Ba +2, 21.6 ppm Zn +2, 13.3 ppm NH 4 +1, 22.4 ppm CN −1, 143 ppm B 4O 7 −2, 363 ppm Pb +2, 10,228 ppm Na 2SO 4, and 8,183 ppm NaCl. Soil increased toxicity of Cr +2 and Ba +2 but decreased toxicity of Cr 2O 7 −2, Cu +2, Cd +2, Al +3, and Hg +2. In distilled water, CaCl 2 increased toxicity of Cr +3 but not Cr 2O 7 −2.
For most toxicants there was a consistent relationship between inhibition of length and inhibition of weight and between inhibition of roots and inhibition of shoots. However, Cr
2O 7 −2 disproportionately decreased dry weight, and Hg +2 and Na 2SO 4 disproportionately decreased stem length growth. With Cd +2 and Cu +2 stem length was greater relative to other measures of growth. Toxicity of Na 2SO 4 and NaCl was the same when concentrations were calculated as osmotic pressure but not when calculated as Na atoms or as total molecules/L. References
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