Baenninger, M., & Newcombe, N. (1989). The role of experience in spatial test performance: A meta-analysis.Sex Roles, 20 327–344.
Beatty, W. W., & Tröster, A. I. (1987). Gender differences in geographical knowledge.Sex Roles, 16 565–590.
Bever, T. (1992). The logical and extrinsic sources of modularity. In M. Gunnar & M. Maratosos (Eds.),Modularity and constraints in language and cognition, 25, Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, 1992. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Binet, M. A. (1894). Reverse illusions of orientation.The Psychological Review, 1 337–350.
Bronzaft, A. L., Dobrow, S. B., & O'Hanlon, T. J. (1976). Spatial orientation in a subway system.Environment and Behavior, 8 575–594.
Bryant, K. J. (1982). Personality correlates of sense of direction and geographical orientation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43
Casey, M. B., & Brabeck, M. M. (1990). Women who excel on a spatial task: Proposed genetic and environmental factors.Brain and Cognition, 12
Clarkson-Smith, L., & Halpern, D. (1983). Can age-related deficits in spatial memory be attenuated through the use of verbal coding?Experimental Aging Research, 9
Cohen, S. L., & Cohen, R. (1985). The role of activity in spatial cognition. In R. Cohen (Ed.),The development of spatial cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Devlin, A. S. (1973). Some factors in enhancing knowledge of a natural area. In W. F. E. Preiser (Ed.),Environmental design research (Vol. 2). Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross.
Evans, G. W. (1980). Environmental cognition.Psychological Bulletin, 88 259–287.
Evans, G. W., Skorpanich, M. A., Gärling, T., Bryant, K. J., & Bresolin, B. (1984). The effects of pathway configuration, landmarks and stress on environmental cognition.Journal of Environmental Psychology, 4 323–335.
Feingold, A. (1988). Cognitive gender differences are disappearing.American Psychologist, 43 95–103.
Gärling, T., Böök, A., & Lindberg, E. (1985). Adults' memory representations of the spatial properties of their everyday physical environment. In R. Cohen (Ed.),The development of spatial cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gregg, F. M. (1940). Overcoming geographic disorientation.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4 66–68.
Harris, L. J. (1981). Sex-related variations in spatial skill. In L. S. Liben, A. H. Patterson, & N. Newcombe (Eds.),Spatial representation and behavior across the life span. New York: Academic Press.
Hart, R. (1979).Children's experience of place. New York: Irvington.
Kozlowski, L. T., & Bryant, K. J. (1977). Sense of direction, spatial orientation, and cognitive maps.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3 590–598.
LaGrone, C. W. (1969). Sex and personality differences in relation to feeling for direction.The Journal of General Psychology, 81
Linn, M. C., & Petersen, A. C. (1985). Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: A meta-analysis.Child Development, 56
Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. (1974).The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Nerlove, S. B., Munroe, R. H., & Munroe, R. L. (1971). Effect of environmental experience on spatial ability: A replication.The Journal of Social Psychology, 84 3–10.
Newcombe, N., & Dubas, J. S. (1992). A longitudinal study of predictors of spatial ability in adolescent females.Child Development, 63
O'Keefe, J., & Nadel, L. (1978). Spatial behaviour.The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford Clarendon Press.
Robert, M., & Tanguay, M. (1990). Perception and representation of the Euclidean coordinates in mature and elderly men and women.Experimental Aging Research, 16
Russell, J. A., & Ward, L. M. (1982). Environmental psychology.Annual Review of Psychology, 33 651–688.
Saegert, S., Mackintosh, I., & West, S. (1975). Two studies of crowding in urban public spaces.Environment and Behavior, 7 159–184.
Sholl, M. J. (1989). The relation between horizontality and rod-and-frame and vestibular navigational performance.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15 110–125.
Siegel, A. W., & White, S. H. (1975). The development of spatial representations of large-scale environments. In H. W. Reese (Ed.),Advances in child development (Vol. 10). New York: Academic Press.
Signorella, M. L., Jamison, W., & Krupa, M. H. (1989). Predicting spatial performance from gender stereotyping in activity preferences and in self-concept.Developmental Psychology, 25 89–95.
Trowbridge, C. C. (1913). On fundamental methods of orientation and “imaginary maps.”Science, 38 888–897.
Vandenberg, S. G., & Kuse, A. R. (1978). Mental rotations, a group test of three-dimensional spatial visualization.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47
White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence.Psychological Review, 66
Williams, C. L., Barnett, A. M., & Meck, W. H. (1990). Organizational effects of early gonadal secretions on sexual differentiation in spatial memory.Behavioral Neuroscience, 104
Wittig, M. A., & Allen, M. J. (1984). Measurement of adult performance on Piaget's water horizontality task.Intelligence, 8 305–313.
Zimring, C. M. (1981). Stress and the designed environment.Journal of Social Issues, 37 145–171.