# Modified governing equations for gas-particle nozzle flows

## Authors

- Received:
- Revised:

DOI: 10.1007/BF01173948

- Cite this article as:
- Baruah, C.K. & Reddy, N.M. Acta Mechanica (1988) 71: 215. doi:10.1007/BF01173948

## Summary

A modified set of governing equations for gas-particle flows in nozzles is suggested to include the inertial forces acting on the particle phase. The problem of gas-particle flow through a nozzle is solved using a first order finite difference scheme. A suitable stability condition for the numerical scheme for gas-particle flows is defined. Results obtained from the present set of equations are compared with those of the previous set of equations. It is also found that present set of equations give results which are in good agreement with the experimental observation.

### Nomenclature

*A*Cross-sectional area of nozzle

*A*^{*}cross-sectional area of nozzle throat

*c*solid specific heat of particle

*C*_{D}coefficient of drag

*c*_{p}specific heat of gas at constant pressure

*c*_{v}specific heat of gas at constant volume

*D*viscous drag force for a single solid particle

*d*diameter of particle

*L*length of nozzle

*m*_{p}mass of each solid particle

- Nu
Nusselt number

*p*pressure of gas

- Pr
Prandtle number

*Q*heat transfer from particle to gas phase

*R*gas constant

*r*_{t}nozzle throat radius

- Re
Reynolds number

*T*temperature of gas

*u*velocity of gas

- β
density of particle phase

- μ
viscosity of gas

- ϱ
density of gas

- η
loading ratio

### Subscript

*P*refers to particle phase