Acocks, J. P. H. 1953. Veld types of South Africa.Memoirs of the Botanical Society of South Africa 28:1–92.
Ansell, W. F. H. 1971. Order Artiodactyla. InThe Mammals of Africa: an identification manual (eds J. Meester and H. W. Setzer): Part 15. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Avery, G. 1989. Some features distinguishing various types of occurrence at Elandsfontein, Cape Province, South Africa.P.A. 19:213–20.
Avery, G., Avery, D. M., Braine, S. and Loutit, R. 1983. A taphonomic study of osteological prey remains ofCanis mesomelas black-backed jackal and ofHyaena brunnea brown hyaena in the Skeleton Coast Park, SWA/Namibia. Unpublished Report submitted to the Department of Nature Conservation, SWA/Namibia.
Avery, G., Avery, D. M., Braine, S. and Loutit, R. 1984. Bone accumulation by hyaenas and jackals: a taphonomic study.S.A.J.S. 80:186–7.
Behrensmeyer, A. K. 1978. Taphonomic and ecologic information from bone weathering.Paleobiology 4:150–62.
Bigalke, R. C. 1979. Aspects of vertebrate life in fynbos, South Africa. InEcosystems of the World Vol. 9. Heathlands and Related Shrublands: descriptive studies (ed. R. L. Sprecht): pp. 81–95. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Binford, L. R. 1981.Bones: ancient men and modern myths. New York: Academic Press.
Binford, L. R. 1984.Faunal Remains from Klasies River Mouth. New York: Academic Press.
Blumenschine, R. J. 1986. Carcass consumption sequences and the archaeological distinction of scavenging and hunting.J.H.E. 15:639–59.
Blumenschine, R. J. 1987. Characteristics of an early hominid scavenging niche.C.A. 28:383–407.
Bohart, R. M. and Menke, A. S. 1976.Sphecid Wasps of the World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brain, C. K. 1981.The Hunters or the Hunted?: an introduction to African cave taphonomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brink, J. S. 1987. The archaeozoology of Florisbad, Orange Free State.Memoirs van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 24:1–151.
Bunn, H. T. 1981. Archaeological evidence for meat-eating by Plio-Pleistocene hominids from Koobi Fora and Olduvai Gorge.Nature 291:574–7.
Bunn, H. T. and E. M. Kroll. 1986. Systematic butchery by Plio-Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.C.A. 5:431–52.
Butzer, K. W. 1973. Re-evaluation of the geology of the Elandsfontein (Hopefield) site, south-western Cape, South Africa.S.A.J.S. 69:234–8.
Churcher, C. S. 1986. The extinct Cape Zebra.Sagittarius 1(4):4–5.
Cooke, H. B. S. 1974. The fossil mammals of Cornelia, O.F.S., South Africa.Memoirs van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 9:63–84.
Cooke, H. B. S. and Wilkinson, A. F. 1978. Suidae and Tayassuidae. InEvolution of African Mammals (eds V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke): pp. 435–82. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Coon, C. S. 1962.The Origin of Races. New York: Knopf.
Deacon, H. J. 1975. Demography, subsistence and culture during the Acheulean in southern Africa. InAfter the Australopithecines (eds K. W. Butzer and G. Ll. Isaac): pp. 543–69. The Hague: Mouton.
Deacon, H. J. 1989. Late Pleistocene palaeoecology and archaeology in the southern Cape, South Africa. InThe Human Revolution: behavioural and biological perspectives in the origins of modern humans (eds P. Mellars and C. Stringer): pp. 547–64. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Deacon, H. J. (n.d.). The stratigraphy of the Hopefield Fossil Site. Unpublished manuscript.
Dechow, P. C. and Singer, R. 1984. Additional fossilTheropithecus from Hopefield, South Africa: a comparison with other African sites and re-evaluation of its taxonomic status.A.J.P.A. 63:405–35.
Drennan, M. R. 1953. The Saldanha Skull and its associations.Nature 172:791.
Drennan, M. R. 1955. The special features and status of the Saldanha Skull.A.J.P.A. 13:625–34.
Ewer, R. F. and Singer, R. 1956. Fossil Carnivora from Hopefield.Annals of the South African Museum 42:335–47.
Gentry, A. W. 1978. Bovidae. InEvolution of African Mammals (eds V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke): pp. 540–72. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Gentry, A. W. 1985. Pliocene and Pleistocene Bovidae in Africa. InL'Environnement des Hominidés au Plio-Pléistocène: pp. 119–32. Paris: Masson.
Gentry, A. W. and Gentry, A. 1978. Fossil Bovidae (Mammalia) of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series 29(4):289–446 and 30(1):1–83.
Geraads, D. 1981. Bovidae et Giraffidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) du Pléistocène de Ternifine (Algérie).Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris) 4, sér. 3, section C, 1:47–86.
Gifford, D. P. 1981. Taphonomy and paleoecology: a critical review of archaeology's sister disciplines.Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 4:365–438.
Gifford, D. P., Isaac, G. Ll. and Nelson, C. M. 1981. Evidence for predation and pastoralism at Prolonged Drift: a Pastoral Neolithic site in Kenya.Azania 15:57–108.
Goddard, J. 1970. Age criteria and vital statistics of a black rhinoceros population.East African Wildlife Journal 8:105–21.
Goss, R. 1986.Maberly's Mammals of Southern Africa. Johannesburg: Delta Books.
Grayson, D. K. 1988. Danger Cave, Last Supper Cave, and Hanging Rock Shelter: the faunas.Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 66:1–130.
Guilday, J. E., Parmalee, P. W. and Tanner, D. P. 1962. Aboriginal butchering techniques at the Eschelman Site (36 La 12), Lancaster County, Pa.Pennsylvania Archaeologist 32:59–83.
Haltenorth, T. and Diller, H. 1980.A Field Guide to the Mammals of Africa, including Madagascar. London: Collins.
Haynes, G. 1983. A guide for differentiating mammalian carnivore taxa responsible for gnaw damage to herbivore limb bones.Paleobiology 9:164–72.
Hendey, Q. B. 1968. The Melkbos site: an upper Pleistocene fossil occurrence in the southwestern Cape Province.Annals of the South African Museum 52:89–119.
Hendey, Q. B. 1974. The Late Cenozoic Carnivora of the South-Western Cape Province.Annals of the South African Museum 63:1–369.
Hendey, Q. B. 1982.Langebaanweg: a record of past life. Cape Town: South African Museum.
Hendey, Q. B. and Cooke, H. B. S. 1985.Kolpochoerus paiceae (Mammalia, Suidae) from Skurwerug, near Saldanha, South Africa, and its palaeoenvironmental implications.Annals of the South African Muesum 97:9–56.
Hendey, Q. B. and Hendey H. 1968. New Quaternary fossil sites near Swartklip, Cape Province.Annals of the South African Museum 52:43–73.
Hooijer, D. A. and Singer, R. 1960. Fossil rhinoceroses from Hopefield, South Africa.Zoologische Mededelingen (Rijkmuseum van natuurlijke historie te Leiden) 37:113–28.
Hooijer, D. A. and Singer, R. 1961. The fossil hippopotamus from Hopefield, South Africa.Zoologische Mededelingen (Rijksmuseum van natuurlijke historie te Leiden) 37:157–65.
Inskeep, R. R. and Hendey, Q. B. 1966. An interesting association of bones from the Elandsfontein fossil site.P.A.C. 5:109–24.
Isaac, G. Ll. 1975. Stratigraphy and cultural patterns in East Africa during the middle ranges of Pleistocene time. InAfter the Australopithecines (eds K. W. Butzer and G. Ll. Isaac): pp. 543–69. The Hague: Mouton.
Keeley, L. H. and N. Toth. 1981. Microwear polishes on early stone tools from Koobi Fora, Kenya.Nature 293:464–5.
Keen, E. N. and Singer, R. 1956. Further fossil Suidae from Hopefield.Annals of the South African Museum 42:350–60.
Klein, R. G. 1974. On the taxonomic status, distribution, and ecology of the blue antelope,Hippotragus leucophaeus (Pallas, 1776).Annals of the South African Museum 65:99–143.
Klein, R. G. 1975. Paleoanthropological implications of the non-archeological bone assemblage from Swartklip 1, south-western Cape Province, South Africa.Q.R. 5:275–88.
Klein, R. G. 1978. The fauna and overall interpretation of the ‘Cutting 10’ Acheulean site at Elandsfontein (Hopefield), south-western Cape Province, South Africa.Q.R. 10:69–83.
Klein, R. G. 1980. Environmental and ecological implications of large mammals from Upper Pleistocene and Holocene sites in southern Africa.Annals of the South African Museum 81:223–83.
Klein, R. G. 1982a. Patterns of ungulate mortality and ungulate mortality profiles from Langebaanweg (early Pliocene) and Elandsfontein (middle Pleistocene), southwestern Cape Province, South Africa.Annals of the South African Museum 90:49–94.
Klein, R. G. 1982b. Age (mortality) profiles as a means of distinguishing hunted species from scavenged ones in stone age archeological sites.Paleobiology 8:151–8.
Klein, R. G. 1983a. Palaeoenvironmental implications of Quaternary large mammals in the Fynbos Biome.South African National Scientific Programmes Reports 75:116–38.
Klein, R. G. 1983b. The Stone Age prehistory of Southern Africa.A.R.A. 12:25–48.
Klein, R. G. 1984. The large mammals of Southern Africa: late Pliocene to Recent. InSouthern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments (ed. R. G. Klein): pp. 107–46. Rotterdam: Balkema.
Klein, R. G. 1986. Carnivore size and Quaternary climatic change in southern Africa.Q.R. 25:153–70.
Klein, R. G. 1987a. The extinct blue antelope.Sagittarius 2(3):20–3.
Klein, R. G. 1987b. Problems and prospects in understanding how early people exploited animals. InEvolution of Human Hunting (eds M. H. Nitecki and D. V. Nitecki): pp. 11–45. New York: Plenum.
Klein, R. G. 1989. Why does skeletal part representation differ between smaller and larger bovids at Klasies River Mouth and other archeological sites?J.A.S. 6:363–81.
Klein, R. G. and Cruz-Uribe, K. 1984.The Analysis of Animal Bones from Archeological Sites. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Klein, R. G. and Cruz-Uribe, K. 1989. Faunal evidence for prehistoric herder-forager activities at Kasteelberg, Vredenburg Peninsula, western Cape Province, South Africa.S.A.A.B. 44:82–97.
Laws, R. M. 1966. Age criteria for the African elephant,Loxodonta africana africana. East African Wildlife Journal 4:1–37.
Leakey, M. D. 1971.Olduvai Gorge: Excavations in Beds I and II, 1960–1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leakey, M. D. and Hay, R. L. 1982. The chronological position of the fossil hominids of Tanzania. InL'Homo erectus et la Place de Tautavel parmi les Hominidés Fossiles (eds H. de Lumley and M. de Lumley): pp. 753–65. Nice: ler Congrès International de Paléontologie Humaine.
Lowe, J. J. and Walker, M. J. C. 1984.Reconstructing Quaternary Environments. London: Longman.
Lyman, R. L. 1984. Bone density and differential survival in fossil classes.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3:259–99.
Lyman, R. L. 1985. Bone frequencies: differential transport, in situ destruction, and the MGUI,J.A.S. 12:221–36.
Mabbutt, J. A. 1956. The physiography and surface geology of the Hopefield fossil site.Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 35:21–58.
Mabbutt, J. A. 1957. The physical background to the Hopefield discoveries.P.A.C. 3:68–75.
Maglio, V. J. 1973. Origin and evolution of the Elephantidae.Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 63(3):1–149.
Maguire, J. M., Pemberton, D. and Collett, M. H. 1980. The Makapansgat Limeworks Grey Breccia: hominids, hyaenas, hystricids or hillwash?Palaeontologia Africana 23:75–98.
Malan, B. D. 1962. The stone industry of the site at Elandsfontein, Hopefield, South Africa.P.A.C. 4:225–32.
Marshall, F. 1986. Implications of bone modification in a Neolithic faunal assemblage for the study of early hominid butchery and subsistence practices.J.H.E. 15:661–72.
Metcalfe, D. and Jones, K. T. 1988. A reconsideraton of animal body-part utility indices.American Antiquity 53:486–504.
Nieman, W. A. 1981. Climate of the coastal lowlands of the Western Cape. InProceedings of a Symposium on Coastal Lowlands of the Western Cape (ed. E. Moll): pp. 11–15. Bellville, South Africa: University of the Western Cape.
Partridge, T. C. 1982. The chronological positions of the fossil hominids of southern Africa. InL'Homo erectus et la Place de Tautavel parmi les Hominidés Fossiles (eds H. de Lumley and M. de Lumley): pp. 617–75. Nice: ler Congrès International de Paléontologie Humaine.
Potts, R. B. and P. Shipman. 1981. Cutmarks made by stone tools on bones from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.Nature 291:577–80.
Richardson, P. R. K. 1980. Carnivore damage to antelope bones and its archaeological implications.Palaeontologia Africana 23:109–25.
Rightmire, G. P. 1984.Homo sapiens in Sub-Saharan Africa. InThe Origin of Modern Humans: a world survey of the fossil evidence (eds F. H. Smith and F. Spencer): pp. 295–325. New York: Liss.
Rightmire, G. P. 1987. Africa and the origin of modern humans. InVariation, Culture and Evolution in African Populations: papers in honour of Dr Hertha de Villiers (eds R. Singer and J. K. Lundy): pp. 209–20. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
Schulze, B. R. 1984.Climate of South Africa, Part 8. General Survey. Pretoria: South African Weather Bureau.
Sinclair, A. R. E. 1977.The African Buffalo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Singer, R. 1954. The Saldanha skull from Hopefield, South Africa.A.J.P.A. 12:345–62.
Singer, R. 1957. Investigations at the Hopefield Site.P.A.C. 3:175–82.
Singer, R. 1958. The Rhodesian, Florisbad, and Saldanha skulls. InHundert Jahre Neanderthaler (ed. G. H. R. von Koenigswald): pp. 52–62. Utrecht: Kemink en Zoon.
Singer, R. 1962.Simopithecus from Hopefield, South Africa.Bibliotheca Primatologica 1:43–70.
Singer, R. and Boné, E. L. 1960. Modern giraffes and fossil giraffids of Africa.Annals of the South African Museum 45:375–548.
Singer, R. and Crawford, J. R. 1957. The significance of the archaeological discoveries at Hopefield, South Africa.J.R.A.I. 88:11–19.
Singer, R. and Keen, E. N. 1955. Fossil suiformes from Hopefield.Annals of the South African Museum 42:169–79.
Singer, R. and Wymer, J. J. 1968. Archaeological investigations at the Saldanha skull site in South Africa.S.A.A.B. 25:63–74.
Singer, R. and Wymer, J. J. 1982.The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Skead, C. J. 1980.Historical Mammal Incidence in the Cape Province. Volume 1. Cape Town: Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation of the Provincial Administration of the Cape of Good Hope.
Smith A. B. 1984. Adaptive strategies of prehistoric pastoralism in the south-western Cape. InFrontiers: southern African archaeology today (eds M. Hall, G. Avery, D. M. Avery, M. L. Wilson and A. J. B. Humphreys): pp. 131–42. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 207.
Smithers, R. H. N. 1983.The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
Stringer, C. B. 1989. The origin of early modern humans: a comparison of the European and non-European evidence. InThe Human Revolution (eds P. Mellars and C. B. Stringer): pp. 232–44. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Stringer, C. B. and Andrews, P. 1988. Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans.Science 239:1263–8.
Taylor, H. C. 1978.Capensis. InBiogeography and Ecology of Southern Africa (ed. M. J. A. Werger): pp. 171–230. The Hague: Junk.
van Hoepen, E. C. N. 1932. Voorlopige beskrywing van Vrystaatse soogdiere.Paleontologiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 2(5):63–5.
Velleman, P. F. 1988.Data Desk Handbook. Volume 1. Northbrook, Illinois: Odesta Corporation.
Volman, T. P. 1984. Early prehistory of southern Africa. InSouthern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments (ed. R. G. Klein): pp. 169–220. Rotterdam: Balkema.
Vrba, E. S. 1971. A new fossil alcelaphine (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from Swartkrans.Annals of the Transvaal Museum 27:59–82.
Vrba, E. S. 1976. The fossil Bovidae of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, and Kromdraai.Memoirs of the Transvaal Museum 21:1–166.
Vrba, E. S. 1977. New species ofParmularius Hopwood andDamaliscus Sclater and Thomas (Alcelaphini: Bovidae: Mammalia).Palaeontologia Africana 20:137–51.
Vrba, E. S. 1978. Problematical alcelaphine fossils from the Kromdraai faunal site (Mammalia: Bovidae).Annals of the Transvaal Museum 31:21–8.
Vrba, E. S. 1982. Biostratigraphy and chronology, based particularly on Bovidae, of southern hominid-associated assemblages: Makapansgat, Sterkfontein, Taung, Kromdraai, Swartkrans; also Elandsfontein (Saldanha), Broken Hill (now Kabwe) and Cave of Hearths. InL'Homo erectus et la Place de Tautavel parmi les Hominidés Fossiles (eds. H. de Lumley and M. de Lumley): pp. 702–52. Nice: ler Congrès International de Paléontologie Humaine.
Vrba, E. S. 1987. New species and a new genus of Hippotragini (Bovidae) from Makapansgat Limeworks.Palaeontologia Africana 26:47–58.