Elevated dark-adapted thresholds in hypopigmented mice measured with a water maze screening apparatus
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In previous electrophysiological experiments from hypopigmented animals (mice, rats, rabbits), single-unit recordings from both retinal ganglion axons and cells in the superior colliculus have demonstrated an increase in threshold in the dark-adapted state which is roughly proportional to the ocular melanin concentration. In the present study we compared an albino mouse strain which is relatively resistant to light damage and the beige mouse mutant to their wild-type controls in a situation that involved unanesthetized, unrestrained mice as a control to the electrophysiological single unit experiments. We used a six-chambered water maze. Animals were trained to swim to an illuminated ramp until their performances leveled off (about 10 days). The animals were then dark-adapted for 24 h and tested after reducing the luminance level of the water maze. We found that the albino mice failed to find the ramp when the luminance fell to 1.58×10−3 cd/m2 (p≤.0001), the beige mice failed at 2.00×10−4 cd/m2 (p≤.0001), and the normally pigmented controls performed to 5.00×10−5 cd/m2 (p≤.0001). These results support our previous findings that the sensitivity defect in hypopigmented animals is proportional to the degree of ocular hypopigmentation.
Balkema, G. W. (1988). Elevated dark-adapted thresholds in albino rodents.Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29:544–554.
Balkema, G. W., and Dräger, U. C. (1990). Origins of uncrossed retinofugal projections in normal and hypopigmented mice.Vis. Neurosci. 4:594–604.
Balkema, G. W., and Dräger, U. C. (1991). Impaired visual thresholds in hypopigmented animals.Vis. Neurosci. 6:557–585.
Balkema, G. W., and Pinto, L. H. (1982). Electrophysiology of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse: A study of a normally pigmented mouse and a congenic hypopigmentation mutant, pearl.J. Neurophysiol. 48:968–980.
Balkema, G. W., Mangini, N. J., and Pinto, L. H. (1983). Discrete visual defects in pearl mutant mice.Science 219:1085–1087.
Balkema, G. W., Mangini, N. J., Pinto, L. H., and Vanable, J. W., Jr. (1984). Visually evoked eye movements in mouse mutants and inbred strains. A screening report.Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.,25:795–800.
Balkema, G. W., Pinto, L. H., Dräger, U. C., and Vanable, J. W., Jr. (1981). Characterization of abnormalities in the visual system of the mutant mouse pearl.J. Neurosci. 1:1320–1329.
Cone, R. A. (1963). Quantum relations of rat electroretinogram.J. Gen. Physiol. 46:1267–1286.
Creel, D. J., Conlee, J. W., and King, R. A. (1990). Dark adaptation in human albinos,Clin. Vision Sci. 5:81–85.
Dodt, E., and Echte, K. (1961). Dark and light adaptation in pigmented and white rat as measured by electroretinogram threshold.J. Neurophysiol. 24:427–445.
Graves, A. L., and Green, D. G. (1985). Light exposure can reduce selectively or abolish the C-wave of the albino rat electroretinogram.Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26:388–393.
Green, D. G. (1971). Light adaptation in the rat retina: Evidence for two receptor mechanisms.Science 174:598–600.
Green, D. G., and Powers, M. K. (1982). Mechanisms of light adaptation in rat retina.Vision Res. 22:209–216.
Green, D. G., de Tejada, P. H., and Glover, M. J. (1991). Are albino rats night blind?Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32:2366–2371.
Hayes, J. M., and Balkema, G. W. (1993). Visual thresholds in mice: Comparison of retinal light damage and hypopigmentation.Vis. Neurosci. 10: (In Press).
Hellner, K. A. (1966). Das adaptive verhalten der mausenetzhaut.Arch. Ophthalmol. 169:166–175.
La Vail, J. H., Nixon, R. A., and Sidman, R. L. (1978). Genetic control of retinal ganglion cell projections.J. Comp. Neurol. 182:399–421.
La Vail, M., Gorrin, G. M., Repaci, M. A., Thomas, L. A., and Ginsberg, H. M. (1987). Genetic regulation of light damage to photoreceptors.Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28:1043–1048.
Linden, R., and Pinto, L. H. (1985). Developmental genetics of the retina: Evidence that the pearl mutation in the mouse affects the time course of natural cell death in the ganglion cell layer.Exp. Brain. Res. 60:79–86.
Mangini, N. J., Vanable, J. W., Williams, M. W., and Pinto, L. H. (1985). The optokinetic nystagmus and ocular pigmentation of hypopigmentation mouse mutants.J. Comp. Neurol. 241:191–209.
Noell, W. K. (1980). There are different kinds of retinal damage in the rat. In Williams, R. P. and Baker, B. N. eds.The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 357–387.
Noell, W. K., Walker, V. S., Kang, B. S., and Berman, S. (1966). Retinal damage by light in rats.Invest. Ophthal. 5:450–473.
Pak, M. W., Giolli, R. A., Pinto, L. H., Mangini, N. J., Gregory, K. M., and Vanable, J. W. (1987). Retinopretectal and accessory optic projections of normal mice and the OKN-defective mutant mice beige, beige-J, and pearl.J. Comp. Neurol. 258:435–446.
Sanderson, K. J., Guillery, R. W., and Shackelford, R. M. (1974). Congenitally abnormal visual pathways in mink (Mustela vision) with reduced retinal pigment.J. Comp. Neurol. 154:225–248.
Shatz, C. J., and Kliot, M. (1982). Prenatal misrouting of the retino-geniculate pathway in Siamese cats.Nature 300:525–529.
Suzuki, H., and Pinto, L. H. (1986). Response properties of horizontal cells in the isolate retina of wild-type and pearl mutant mice.J. Neurosci. 6:1122–1128.
Williams, M. A., Gehrson, J., Fisher, L. J., and Pinto, L. H. (1985a). Synaptic lamellae of the photoreceptors of pearl and wild-type mice.Invest. Ophthalmol Vis. Sci. 26:992–1001.
Williams, M. A., Pinto, L. H., and Gehrson, J. (1985b). The retinal pigment epithelium of wild-type (C57BL/6J +/+) and pearl mutant (C57BL/6J pe/pe) mice.Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26:657–669.
- Elevated dark-adapted thresholds in hypopigmented mice measured with a water maze screening apparatus
Volume 23, Issue 4 , pp 395-403
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- retinal degeneration