Synergism, antagonism, and additivity of phenol, pentachlorophenol, and dinitrophenol to a fish (Notopterus notopterus)

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Abstract

The toxicity of phenol (P), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and dinitrophenol (DNP) was determined separately and in different combinations with a test fish,Notopterus notopterus, using the procedure of Schubertet al. (1978) that provided a simple, sensitive, and quantitative index of synergism, antagonism and additivity. The combination (P + DNP)/PCP was found to be the most synergistic, while (PCP + DNP)/P was antagonistic in nature. The (DNP + P)/PCP combination was additive in its effect. The other combinations were also synergistic, but to a lesser extent than the (P + DNP)/PCP combination.