A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion
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- Ekman, P. & Friesen, W.V. Motiv Emot (1986) 10: 159. doi:10.1007/BF00992253
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We obtained the first evidence of a facial expression unique to contempt. Contrary to our prediction, this contempt expression was not culture-specific but was recognized by people in Estonia S.S.R., Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Scotland, Turkey, the United States, and West Sumatra. Pan-cultural agreement about the contempt expression was as high as has been found previously for other emotions.