International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 32, Issue 10, pp 1801–1813

Quantum relativity


  • David Finkelstein
    • Georgia Institute of TechnologySchool of Physics
  • J. Michael Gibbs
    • Georgia Institute of TechnologySchool of Physics

DOI: 10.1007/BF00979502

Cite this article as:
Finkelstein, D. & Gibbs, J.M. Int J Theor Phys (1993) 32: 1801. doi:10.1007/BF00979502


We propose a unified description of the known forces. We formulate a quantum relativistic spacetime as a (directed) graph of causal arrows with indefinite Hilbert metric, whose physical meaning is given. The simplest graph whose quantum relativity supports conservation of energy-momentum also supports a semidirect product of the cyclic groups2 and3 and the four-group2 2. We call these lattice degrees of freedom (permutational) twain, trine, and spin. Quantized2 2 becomes LorentzSpin(4). Gauged, the energy-momentum and spin groups lead to gravity and torsion, and twain and trine lead toSU 2 andSU 3. We infer that color is actually trine, and thez component of isospin is twain.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993