Original Investigations

Psychopharmacology

, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 14-19

Rewarding properties of β-endorphin as measured by conditioned place preference

  • M. AmalricAffiliated withDivision of Preclinical Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation
  • , E. J. ClineAffiliated withDivision of Preclinical Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation
  • , J. L. MartinezJr.Affiliated withDepartment of Psychology, University of California Berkeley
  • , F. E. BloomAffiliated withDivision of Preclinical Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation
  • , G. F. KoobAffiliated withDivision of Preclinical Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation

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Abstract

The role of β-endorphin as a possible mediator in the reinforcing properties of opiates was investigated using a conditioned place preference paradigm. Heroin, a synthetic opiate known to have reinforcing properties, produced a strong preference for an environment previously paired with heroin injection at all doses tested (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg SC). No such place preference was observed following saline injections. Rats also showed dose-dependent place preference for the environment paired with β-endorphin when injected intracerebroventricularly (significant dose was 2.5 μg). At higher doses (5.0 and 10.0 μg) rats showed no preference for the paired environment, but were catatonic. Pretreatment with naloxone (0.04, 0.2, 1.0 mg/kg SC) attenuated the rewarding effect of β-endorphin (2.5 μg) at all doses tested. The lowest dose of naloxone which had no aversive effect when tested alone could also significantly block the positive effect of β-endorphin. The reinforcing dose of β-endorphin (2.5 μg) also produced an increase in locomotor activity, when tested in photocell cages. This suggests that the hyperactivity induced by β-endorphin may contribute to the preference for an environment previously paired with the same drug. The reinforcing effect of β-endorphin is most probably mediated by the mu and/or delta opioid subtype receptor, since β-endorphin has a high affinity for these receptors. These results demonstrate positive reinforcing properties of β-endorphin in the central nervous system.

Key words

Place preference Heroin β-endorphin Naloxone Reward Rat