, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 86-114

Mineralogy and genesis of the metamorphosed manganese silicate rocks (gondite) of Gowari Wadhona, Madhya Pradesh, India

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Abstract

Manganese silicate rocks, interbanded with manganese oxide orebodies, constitute an important stratigraphic horizon in the Mansar formation of the Sausar Group of Precambrian age in India. The manganese silicate rocks of Gowari Wadhona occupy the westernmost flank of the manganese belt of the Sausar Group. These rocks are constituted of spessartite, calcium-rich rhodonite, quartz, manganoan diopside, blanfordite (manganese bearing member of diopside-acmite series), brown manganese pyroxene (manganese bearing aegirine-augite), winchite (manganese bearing richterite-tremolite), juddite (manganese bearing amphibole with richterite, tremolite, magnesioriebeckite and glaucophane molecules), tirodite (manganese bearing amphibole with richterite, cummingtonite and glaucophane molecules), manganophyllite, alurgite, piedmontite, braunite, hollandite (and other lower oxides of manganese) with minor apatite, plagioclase, calcite, dolomite and microcline. A complete mineralogical account of the manganese-bearing phases has been given in the text. It has been shown that the juxtaposition of manganese silicate rocks with dolomitic marble, regional metamorphism to almandine-amphibolite facies and assimilation of pegmatite veins cutting across the manganese formation, were responsible for the development of these manganese silicate rocks and the unusual chemical composition of some of the constituent minerals. It has been concluded that the manganese silicate rocks of Gowari Wadhona were originally laid down as sediments comprising manganese oxides admixed with clay, silica etc. and were later regionally metamorphosed to almandine-amphibolite facies. All evidences indicate that rhodochrosite was not present in the original sediment and the bulk composition of the sediments was rich in manganese. These rocks agree entirely to the detailed nomenclature of the gondites enunciated by Fermor (1909) and amplified by Roy and Mitra (1964) and Roy (1966).