, Volume 53, Issue 5, pp 343-356

Stratigraphy of the Toba Tuffs and the evolution of the Toba Caldera Complex, Sumatra, Indonesia

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Abstract

During the past 1.2 m.y., a magma chamber of batholithic proportions has developed under the 100 by 30 km Toba Caldera Complex. Four separate eruptions have occurred from vents within the present collapse structure, which formed from eruption of the 2800 km3 Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) at 74 ka. Eruption of the three older Toba Tuffs alternated from calderas situated in northern and southern portions of the present caldera. The northern caldera apparently developed upon a large andesitic stratovolcano. The calderas associated with the three older tuffs are obscured by caldera collapse and resurgence resulting from eruption of the YTT. Samosir Island and the Uluan Block are two sides of a single resurgent dome that has resurged since eruption of the YTT. Samosir Island is composed of thick YTT caldera fill, whereas the Uluan Block consists mainly of the Oldest Toba Tuff (OTT). In the past 74000 years lava domes have been extruded on Samosir Island and along the caldera's western ring fracture. This part of the ring fracture is the site of the only current activity at Toba: updoming and fumarolic activity. The Toba eruptions document the growth of the laterally continuous magma body which eventually erupted the YTT. Repose periods between the four Toba Tuffs range between 0.34 and 0.43 m.y. and give insights into pluton emplacement and magmatic evolution at Toba.