Global radiation climate changes in Israel
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A detailed study of the 26-year series of global radiation K↓, measurements at Bet Dagan, the Israel Meteorological Service's pyranometer station in the central coastal plain of Israel, confirmed earlier findings of a significant reduction in insolation which were based on a small sample of this data set (Stanhill and Moreshet, 1992). Between 1956 and 1987 the annual reduction averaged 45.2 ± 4.3 MJ m−2, equivalent to −0.63% yr−1. Relatively the reduction was greater in midwinter (−0.91% yr−1), than midsummer (−0.56% yr−1), and under average (−0.63% yr−1), than cloudless (−0.48% yr−1) sky conditions. No changes were found in the degree of cloud cover observed at Bet Dagan.
The annual decrease of K↓ at Bet Dagan was highly correlated (r = −0.78) with the increase in the number of motor vehicles using the major roads passing within 1 km of the site: each additional vehicle passing was associated with a 21.5 J m−2 decrease in K↓ The causal nature of this correlation was confirmed by the difference of 18% found in daily values of K↓ measured at Bet Dagan under traffic-free and extremely congested road conditions.
The reduction in the K↓ at Bet Dagan could not, however, be attributed exclusively to the increase in motor traffic in the immediate vicinity of the site, as no significant difference was found in values measured at a relatively traffic-free site 2 km downwind of the pyranometer station. The effect of aerosol pollutants originating in Tel Aviv - the major urban and industrial connurbation upwind of Bet Dagan - was confirmed by the changes recorded in the relative size of the direct and diffuse components of K↓ measured at this site.
The importance of pollution from Tel Aviv would also explain the absence of any significant changes in the annual values of K↓ measured at Jerusalem, a smaller and less industrialized urban center 46 km downwind of Bet Dagan, or at Qidron, an uninhabited, isolated site on the NW coast of the Dead Sea, 25 km further downwind.
- Central Bureau of Statistics: 1989, ‘Statistical Abstract of Israel, 1989’, No. 40, Jerusalem.
- CSAGI: 1957, ‘IGY Instruction Manual Part VI. Radiation Instruments and Measurements’, Annals of the IGY IV, 367–466.
- Drummond, A. J.: 1956, ‘On the Measurement of Sky Radiation’, Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl., Series B, 7, 413–436.
- Ganor, E. and Foner, H. A.: 1989, ‘Composition of Some Urban Atmospheric Aerosols in Israel’, in Juria, H., Steinberger, Y., and Spanier, E. (eds.), Environmental Quality and Ecosystem Stability: Vol. IV A, ISEEQS Publishers Jerusalem, pp. 121–131.
- Garrison, J. D. and Adler, G. P.: 1990, ‘Estimation of Precipitable Water over the United States for Application to the Division of Solar Radiation into its Direct and Diffuse Components’, Solar Energy 44, 225–241.
- Herzog, Ch.: 1974, ‘Military Aspects’, in Yom Kippur War. Encyclopaedia Judaica Year Book 1974, Keter Publishing House, Ltd., Jerusalem, pp. 66–87.
- Joseph, J. H. and Manes, A.: 1971, ‘Secular and Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric Turbidity at Jerusalem’, J. Appl. Met. 10, 453–462.
- Joseph, J. H. and Wolfson, N.: 1975, ‘The Ratio of Absorption to Backscatter of Solar Radiation by Aerosols and Effects on the Radiation Balance’, J. Appl. Met. 14, 1389–1396.
- Le Baron, B. A., Michalsky, J. J., and Perez, R.: 1990, ‘A Simple Procedure for Correctng Shadow Band Data for All Sky Conditions’, Solar Energy 44, 249–256.
- Levin, Z. and Lindberg, J. D.: 1979, ‘Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Urban and Desert Aerosols in Israel’, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6941–6950.
- Levin, Z. and Ganor, E.: 1988, ‘Measurements of Aerosols Size Spectra and Chemical Composition in the Dead Sea Rift Valley’, Proc. 12th Inter. Conf. Atmos. Aerosols Nucleation, 22–27 August 1988, Vienna, 4 pp.
- Mamane, Y, Ganor, E., and Donagi, A. E.: 1980, ‘Aerosol Composition of Urban and Desert Origin in the Eastern Mediterranean I. Individual Particle Analysis’, Water, Air and Soil Poll. 14, 29–43.
- Mamane, Y., Ganor, E., and Donagi, A. E.: 1981, ‘Analysis of Air Quality Data During a Day of Relatively Low Emissions’, J. Air Poll. Cont. Assocn. 31, 678–679.
- Mamane, Y., Ganor, E., and Donagi, A. E.: 1982, ‘Aerosol Composition of Urban and Desert Origin in the Eastern Mediterranean II. Deposition of Large Particles’, Water, Air and Soil Poll. 18, 475–484.
- Manes, A., Rindsberger, M., Guetta, D., and Teitelman, A.: 1974, ‘Long-Term Trends in Visibility at the Ben Gurion (Lod) Airport Area’, Isr. J. Earth Sci. 23, 1–7.
- Manes, A., Goldreich, Y, Rindsberger, M., and Guetta, D.: 1975, ‘Inadvertent Modification of the Solar Radiation Climate at Bet Dagan’, in Proc. 6th Sci. Conf. Israel Ecol. Soc., Tel-Aviv 4–5 June, 1970, pp. 224–232.
- Newhall, C. G. and Self, S.: 1982, ‘The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI); An Estimate of Explosive Magnitude for Historical Volcanism’, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1231–1238.
- Robinson, G. D.: 1964, ‘Surface Measurements of Solar and Terrestrial Radiation during the IGY and IGC’, Annals of the IGY (Meteorology) 32, 17–61.
- Stanhill, G.: 1970, ‘Measurements of Global Solar Radiation in Israel’, Isr. J. Earth Sci. 19, 91–96.
- Stanhill, G.: 1987, ‘The Radiation Climate of the Dead Sea’, J. Climat. 7, 247–265.
- Stanhill, G. and Moreshet, S.: 1992, ‘Global Radiation Climate Changes. The World Network’, Clim. Change 21, 57–75.
- Steven, M. D.: 1984, ‘The Anisotropy of Diffuse Solar Radiation Determined from Shade-Ring Measurements’, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 110, 261–270.
- Suraqui, S., Tabor, H., Klein, W. H., and Goldberg, B.: 1974, ‘Solar Radiation Changes at Mt. St. Katherine after Forty Years’, Solar Energy 16, 155–158.
- Twomey, S., Gall, R., and Leuthold, M.: 1987, ‘Pollution and Cloud Reflectance’, Boundary-Layer Meteor. 41, 335–348.
- World Meteorological Organization: 1981, ‘Measurement of adiation’, Chapter 9 in Guide to Meteorological and Observing Practice, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.
- Global radiation climate changes in Israel
Volume 22, Issue 2 , pp 121-138
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors