Severe summer ice in Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay following major volcanic eruptions, 1751 to 1889 A.D.
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Indices of summer sea ice severity in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries have been reconstructed from sailing ships' log-books. The ice record for Hudson Strait extends from 1751 to 1889. Ice records are available for two parts of Hudson Bay and these extend from 1751 to 1870. The three records were derived from the same sources but the method of derivation applied in the bay was different to that applied in the strait. The years having the five largest ice indices in each of these records were identified. Also identified were the years in which major volcanic eruptions occurred between 1751 and 1889. The number of concurrences between the years with severe ice in Hudson Strait and the years with major eruptions was significant at the 99.5% level. In the western part of Hudson Bay this significance level was 95%. The years with severe ice in eastern Hudson Bay did not concur with major eruptions.
- Angell, J. K., Korshover, J. (1985) Surface Temperature Changes Following the Six Major Volcanic Episodes between 1780 and 1980. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 24: pp. 937-51
- Barry, R. G. (1981) The Nature and Origin of Climatic Fluctuations in Northeastern North America. Geographie physique et Quaternaire XXXV: pp. 41-7
- Bell, C. N. (1884) Our Northern Waters; A Report Presented to the Winnipeg Board of Trade Regarding the Hudson's Bay and Straits. Winnipeg Board of Trade, Winnipeg
- Bjornsson, H. (1969) Sea Ice Conditions and the Atmospheric Circulation North of Iceland. Jökull 19: pp. 11-17
- Brinkmann, W. A. R., Barry, R. G. (1972) Palaeoclimatological Aspects of the Synoptic Climatology of Keewatin, Northwest Territories, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 11: pp. 77-91
- Ice Summary and Analysis 1964–1973. Hudson Bay and Approaches, Toronto
- Catchpole, A. J. W., Faurer, M. A. (1983) Summer Sea Ice Severity in Hudson Strait, 1751–1870. Climatic Change 5: pp. 115-39
- Catchpole, A. J. W., Faurer, M. A. (1985) Ships' Log-Books, Sea Ice and the Cold Summer of 1816 in Hudson Bay and its Approaches. Arctic 38: pp. 121-128
- Catchpole, A. J. W., Halpin, J. (1987) Measuring Summer Sea Ice Severity in Eastern Hudson Bay 1751–1870. Canadian Geographer 31: pp. 233-44
- Chester, D. K. (1988) Volcanoes and Climate: Recent Volcanological Perspectives. Progress in Physical Geography 12: pp. 1-35
- Crane, R. G. (1978) Seasonal Variations of Sea Ice Extent in the Davis Strait-Labrador Sea Area and Relationships with Synoptic-Scale Atmospheric Circulation. Arctic 31: pp. 434-47
- Crane, R. G. (1983) Atmosphere-Sea-Ice Interactions in the Beaufort/Chukchi Sea and the European Sector of the Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research 87C: pp. 4505-23
- Danielson, E. W. (1971) Hudson Bay Ice Conditions. Arctic 24: pp. 90-107
- Dey, B. (1980) Seasonal and Annual Variations in Ice Cover in Baffin Bay and Northern Davis Strait. Canadian Geographer 24: pp. 368-84
- Dunbar, M.: 1985, ‘Sea Ice and Climatic Change in the Arctic since 1800’, in C. R. Harington (ed.), Climatic Change in Canada 5, Critical Periods in the Quaternary Climatic History of Northern North America, Syllogeus 55, 107–19.
- Hammer, C. V., Clausen, H. B., Dansgaard, W. (1980) Greenland Ice Sheet Evidence of Post-Glacial Volcanism and its Climatic Impact. Nature 288: pp. 230-5
- Keen, R. A. The Response of Baffin Bay Ice Conditions to Changes in Atmospheric Circulation Patterns. In: Muggeridge, D. E. eds. (1978) Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions. Memorial University, St. Johns, pp. 963-71
- Kelly, P. M., Sear, C. B. (1984) Climatic Impact of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions. Nature 311: pp. 740-3
- Lamb, H. H. (1970) Volcanic Dust in the Atmosphere; With a Chronology and Assessment of its Meteorological Significance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 266: pp. 425-533
- Lough, J. M., Fritts, H. C. (1987) An Assessment of the Possible Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on North American Climate Using Tree-Ring Data, 1602 to 1900 A.D.. Climatic Change 10: pp. 219-39
- Newhall, C. G., Self, S. (1982) The Volcanic Explosivity Index: An Estimate of Explosive Magnitude for Historical Volcanism. Journal of Geophysical Research 87C: pp. 1231-8
- Niebauer, H. J. (1983) Multiyear Sea-Ice Variability in the Eastern Bering Sea: An Update. Journal of Geophysical Research 88C: pp. 2733-42
- Overland, J. E., Pease, C. H. (1982) Cyclone Climatology of the Bering Sea and its Relation to Sea Ice Extent. Monthly Weather Review 110: pp. 5-13
- Parker, D. E. (1985) Climatic Impact of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions. The Meteorological Magazine 114: pp. 149-61
- Petzold, D. E. (1982) The Summer Weather Types of Quebec-Labrador. Climatological Research Series 14. Centre for Northern Studies and Research, McGill University, Montreal
- Rogers, J. C. (1978) Meteorological Factors Affecting the Interannual Variability of Summertime Sea-Ice Extent in the Beaufort Sea. Monthly Weather Review 106: pp. 890-7
- Rogers, J. C., Loon, H. (1979) The Seesaw in Winter Temperature between Greenland and Northern Europe. Part II: Some Oceanic and Atmospheric Effects in Middle and High Latitudes. Monthly Weather Review 107: pp. 509-19
- Self, S., Rampino, M. R. (1981) The 1883 Eruption of Krakatau. Nature 294: pp. 699-704
- Self, S., Rampino, M. R. (1988) The Relationship between Volcanic Eruptions and Climatic Change: Still a Conundrum?. Eos 69: pp. 74-5
- Simkin, T., Fiske, R. S. (1983) Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and its Effects. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington
- Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E. (1981) Temporal Variability of Microparticle Properties in Polar Ice Sheets. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 11: pp. 11-27
- Tuttle, C. R. (1885) Our North Land: Being a Full Account of the Canadian North-West and Hudson's Bay Route, Together With a Narrative of the Experiences of the Hudson's Bay Expedition of 1884. C. Blackett Robinson, Toronto
- Walsh, J. E. (1983) The Role of Sea Ice in Climatic Variability: Theories and Evidence. Atmosphere-Ocean 21: pp. 229-42
- Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service: Manuscript maps of ice conditions in Hudson Bay and its approaches, constructed at weekly intervals, 1974–1984, Ice Forecasting Central, Ottawa.
- Hudson's Bay Company Archives (HBCA), Provincial Archives of Manitoba (PAM), Moose Factory District Report, 1885, B. 135/e/23.
- HBCA, PAM, York Factory Post Journal, 1883/1884, B. 239/a/183.
- HBCA, PAM, Book of Ships' Movements, c. 4/1.
- HBCA, PAM, Log-Book of Prince of Wales, 1836, c. 1/831.
- HBCA, PAM, Log-Book of Prince Rupert, 1836, c. 1/930.
- Severe summer ice in Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay following major volcanic eruptions, 1751 to 1889 A.D.
Volume 14, Issue 1 , pp 61-79
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors