, Volume 30, Issue 1-4, pp 351-373

The wind regime in coastal areas with special reference to results obtained from the Swedish wind energy program

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Abstract

The paper describes various aspects of the wind regime in coastal areas as obtained from several experimental programs along the Baltic coast of Sweden. The studies include the change with distance inland of mean wind structure as well as the turbulence structure in various conditions. It is found that wind spectra are usually well described by local similarity in its high frequency part, even in complex terrain. The low frequency parts of the spectra show clear ‘spectral lag effects’. The effects of a small slope, ca 5 m height change over 300 m travel distance, is clearly seen in some spectra, and it is shown that current ‘flow over a hill theory’ can be used to account for it. The change of mean wind speed throughout the entire boundary layer as the wind passes a low but wooded island (Gotland), ca 30 km wide, has been studied in a series of relatively strong wind, near neutral cases. Some unexpected features are found; in particular the wind speed decreases more rapidly with distance inland than predicted by current numerical models. Two cases with a low level jet are discussed in some detail. Arguments are presented for the phenomenon to be caused by frictional decoupling at the Latvian coast, about 200 km upwind — the jet being thus an analogy in space to the classical Blackadar nocturnal jet frequently observed in continental areas.