Laboratory-induced development of the ice-ice disease of the farmed red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)
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The most common perception of unfavorable environmental factors causing the ice-ice disease in the farmed seaweeds, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma, was demonstrated in this study for the first time using stressful conditions of abiotic factors in a continuous culture system. Light intensity of less than 50 μmol photon m−2 s−1 and salinity of 20% or less induced ice-ice whitening characterized by short segments at midbranches which were similar to those observed in the Philippine seaweed farms, while temperatures of up to 33–35 °C resulted in wide-scale whitening leading to complete damage of the branches. These effects were preceded by slow growth rates from an optimum of 3.7% d−1 to almost −2.0% d−1. Mechanical stress by wound injury did not result to ice-ice whitening similar to the above. Environmental factors observed to trigger ice-ice in the laboratory, although may not necessarily parallel those in the field, may act synergestically to produce similar effects.
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Journal of Applied Phycology
Volume 7, Issue 6 , pp 539-543
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- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
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- ice-ice disease
- environmental factors
- seaweed farming
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Science, Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Monobe, Nankoku City, Kochi, 783, Japan
- 2. Usa Marine Biological Institute, Kochi University, Usa-cho, Tosa City, Kochi, 781-11, Japan