, Volume 37, Issue 8, pp 745-755
Date: 10 Jun 2014

Low-grade inflammation in overweight and obese adults is affected by weight loss program

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Abstract

Purpose

Low-grade systemic inflammation due to obesity is considered to be the key link between obesity and obesity-related disorders. The hypothesis was tested that significant alterations in inflammatory markers and adipokines would occur over a multidisciplinary intervention and that these changes might also be important for improvement of cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods

Thirty-tree overweight adults completed a 6-month multidisciplinary intervention program to evaluate the effects of a personalized dietary program based on the individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR) on anthropometric parameters, aerobic and anaerobic capabilities, metabolic profile, inflammation, and body image satisfaction. Body composition, physical activity, anaerobic capabilities, RMR, metabolic profile, and low-grade inflammation were measured. Diet composition and body image dissatisfaction were also assessed.

Results

After 6 months of multidisciplinary intervention the participants showed significantly decreased body weight, waist circumference (WC), and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, and visfatin. They also showed increased anti-inflammatory adiponectin and consequently decreased serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol. The important findings of the study were that reduction of sugars and saturated fatty acids in the diet, coupled with an increase in exercise, significantly correlated with reduction of WC and body mass index. In addition, positive correlations between ∆ BMI, ∆ WC, ∆ trunk fat, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors were demonstrated.

Conclusions

Weight loss in combination with increased physical activity, a negative energy balance, and diet adjustment was associated with lower inflammation and consequently with lower cardiovascular risk factors.