Davis JA, Brewer J. Applied physiology of female soccer players. Sports Med. 1993;16(3):180–9.PubMed
Fahmy M. Increase participation and competitions. In: 5th FIFA women’s football symposium. FIFA. 2011. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/footballdevelopment/women/01/51/51/64/presentation_increaseparticipation_e.pdf
. Accessed 19 Aug 2013.
Reilly T. An ergonomics model of the soccer training process. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):561–72.PubMed
Randers M, Mujika I, Hewitt A, et al. Application of four different match analysis systems: a comparative study. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(2):171–82.PubMed
Di Salvo V, Gregson W, Atkinson G, et al. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:205–12.PubMed
Harley JA, Lovell RJ, Barnes CA, et al. The interchangeability of global positioning system and semiautomated video-based performance data during elite soccer match play. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(8):2334–6.PubMed
Bradley PS, Sheldon W, Wooster B, et al. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(2):159–68.PubMed
Di Salvo V, Baron R, González-Haro C, et al. Sprinting analysis of elite soccer players during European Champions League and UEFA cup matches. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(14):1489–94.PubMed
Vescovi JD. Sprint profile of professional female soccer players during competitive matches: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) study. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(12):1259–65.PubMed
Andersson HÅ, Randers MB, Heiner-Møller A, et al. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(4):912–9.PubMed
Gabbett TJ, Mulvey MJ. Time-motion analysis of small-sided training games and competition in elite women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):543–52.PubMed
Krustrup P, Andersson H, Mohr M, et al. Match activities and fatigue development of elite female soccer players at different levels of competition. In: Reilly T, Korkusuz F, editors. Science and football VI. New York: Routledge; 2008. p. 205–11.
Hewitt A, Withers R, Lyons K. Match analyses of Australian international female soccer players using an athlete tracking device. In: Reilly T, Korkusuz F, editors. Science and football VI. New York: Routledge; 2008. p. 224–8.
Mohr M, Krustrup P, Andersson H, et al. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):341–9.PubMed
Gabbett TJ, Wig H, Spencer M. Repeated high-intensity running and sprinting in elite women’s soccer competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(2):130–8.PubMed
Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sports Sci. 2003;21(7):519–28.PubMed
Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, Andersson H, et al. Physical demands in high-level female soccer—applications of fitness tests to evaluate match performance. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(6):552–3.
Krustrup P, Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, et al. Physical demands during an elite female soccer game: importance of training status. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(7):1242–8.PubMed
Gregson W, Drust B, Atkinson G, et al. Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(04):237–42.PubMed
Andersson H, Raastad T, Nilsson J, et al. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(2):372–80.PubMed
Krustrup P, Zebis M, Jensen JM, et al. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(2):437–41.PubMed
Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, et al. Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities: specific to field-based team sports. Sports Med. 2005;35(12):1025–44.PubMed
Abt G, Lovell R. The use of individualized speed and intensity thresholds for determining the distance run at high-intensity in professional soccer. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(9):893–8.PubMed
Vescovi JD. Sprint speed characteristics of high-level American female soccer players: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) study. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(5):474–8.PubMed
Helgerud J, Engen LC, Wisloff U, et al. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(11):1925–31.PubMed
Reilly T. Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(3):257–63.PubMed
Andersson H, Karlsen A, Blomhoff R, et al. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(4):600–8.PubMed
Stolen T, Chamari K, Castagna C, et al. Physiology of soccer: an update. Sports Med. 2005;35(6):501–36.PubMed
Hoare DG, Warr CR. Talent identification and women’s soccer: an Australian experience. J Sports Sci. 2000;18(9):751–8.PubMed
Bunc V, Psotta R. Functional characteristics of elite Czech female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(6):528.
Gravina L, Ruiz F, Lekue JA, et al. Metabolic impact of a soccer match on female players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(12):1345–52.PubMed
Mujika I, Santisteban J, Impellizzeri FM, et al. Fitness determinants of success in men’s and women’s football. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(2):107–14.PubMed
Ingebrigtsen J, Dillern T, Shalfawi SAI. Aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(12):3352–7.PubMed
Can F, Yilmaz I, Erden Z. Morphological characteristics and performance variables of women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):480–5.PubMed
Sedano S, Vaeyens R, Philippaerts RM, et al. Anthropometric and anaerobic fitness profile of elite and non-elite female soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2009;49(4):387–94.
Castagna C, Castellini E. Vertical jump performance in Italian male and female national teams soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(4):1156–61.PubMed
Vescovi JD, Brown TD, Murray TM. Positional characteristics of physical performance in division I college female soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2006;46(2):221–6.
Todd MK, Scott D, Chisnall PJ. Fitness characteristics of English female soccer players: an analysis by position and playing standard. In: Spinks W, Reilly T, Murphy A, editors. Science and football IV. New York: Routledge; 2002. p. 374–81.
Wells C, Reilly T. Influence of playing position on fitness and performance measures in female soccer players. In: Spinks W, Reilly T, Murphy A, editors. New York: Routledge; 2002. pp. 369–73.
Siegler J, Gaskill S, Ruby B. Changes evaluated in soccer-specific power endurance either with or without a 10-week, in-season, intermittent, high-intensity training protocol. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(2):379–87.PubMed
McCurdy KW, Walker JL, Langford GA, et al. The relationship between kinematic determinants of jump and sprint performance in division I women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3200–8.PubMed
Sjökvist J, Laurent MC, Richardson M, et al. Recovery from high-intensity training sessions in female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(6):1726–35.PubMed
Tumilty D, Darby S. Physiological characteristics of Australian female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:145.
Polman R, Walsh D, Bloomfield J, et al. Effective conditioning of female soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(2):191–203.PubMed
Ramsbottom R, Brewer J, Williams C. A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Br J Sports Med. 1988;22(4):141–4.PubMedCentralPubMed
Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Manzi V, et al. The assessment of maximal aerobic power with the multistage fitness test in young women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(6):1488–94.PubMed
Rhodes E, Mosher R. Aerobic and anaerobic characteristics of elite female university soccer players. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:143–4.
Davis JA, Brewer J. Physiological characteristics of an international female soccer squad. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:142–3.
Jensen K, Larsson B. Variations in physical capacity among the Danish national soccer team for women during a period of supplemental training. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:144.
Castagna C, Abt G, D’Ottavio S. Competitive-level differences in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and twelve minute run test performance in soccer referees. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(4):805–9.PubMed
Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training. J Sports Sci. 2001;19(11):881–91.PubMed
Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Belardinelli R, et al. Cardiorespiratory responses to Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test in nonelite youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):326–30.PubMed
Bradley PS, Bendiksen M, Dellal A, et al. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(1):43–54.PubMed
Scott D, Andersson H. Women soccer. In: Williams M, editor. Science and soccer: developing elite players. London: Routledge; 2012. p. 237–57.
Vescovi JD, Mcguigan MR. Relationships between sprinting, agility, and jump ability in female athletes. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(1):97–107.PubMed
Tumilty D. Protocols for the physiological assessment of male and female soccer players. In: Gore CJ, editor. Physiological tests for elite athletes. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2000. p. 356–62.
Gabbett TJ. The development of a test of repeated-sprint ability for elite women’s soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(5):1191–4.PubMed
Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer-with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1994;619:1–155.
Arnason A, Sigurdsson SB, Gudmundsson A, et al. Physical fitness, injuries and team performance in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;36(2):278–85.
Vescovi JD, Rupf R, Brown TD, et al. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12–21 years of age. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(5):670–8.PubMed
Rhea MR, Lavinge DM, Robbins P, et al. Metabolic conditioning among soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(3):800–6.PubMed
Little T, Williams AG. Suitability of soccer training drills for endurance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):316–9.PubMed
Clark JE. The use of an 8-week mixed-intensity interval endurance-training program improves the aerobic fitness of female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(7):1773–81.PubMed
Upton DE. The effect of assisted and resisted sprint training on acceleration and velocity in division I female soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(10):2645–52.PubMed
Bartolini JA, Brown LE, Coburn JW, et al. Optimal elastic cord assistance for sprinting in collegiate women soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1263–70.PubMed
Campo SS, Vaeyens R, Philippaerts RM, et al. Effects of lower-limb plyometric training on body composition, explosive strength and kicking speed in female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(6):1714–22.
Grieco CR, Cortes N, Greska EK, et al. Effects of a combined resistance-plyometric training program on muscular strength, running economy, and V
in division 1 female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(9):2570–6.PubMed
Chimera NJ, Swanik KA, Swanik CB, et al. Effects of plyometric training on muscle-activation strategies and performance in female athletes. J Athl Train. 2004;39(1):24–31.PubMedCentralPubMed
Oosthuyse T, Bosch AN. The effect of the menstrual cycle on exercise metabolism: implications for exercise performance in eumenorrhoeic women. Sports Med. 2010;40(3):207–27.PubMed
Burrows M, Peters CE. The influence of oral contraceptives on athletic performance in female athletes. Sports Med. 2007;37(7):557–74.PubMed
Janse de Jonge XAK. Effects of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance. Sports Med. 2003;33(11):833–51.PubMed
Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, et al. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17(7):705–29.PubMed
Renstrom P, Ljungqvist A, Arendt E, et al. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(6):394–412.PubMedCentralPubMed
Vescovi JD. The menstrual cycle and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk: implications of menstrual cycle variability. Sports Med. 2011;41(2):91–101.PubMed
Reilly T. The menstrual cycle and human performance: an overview. Biol Rhythm Res. 2000;31(1):29–40.
Loucks AB. Effects of exercise training on the menstrual cycle: existence and mechanisms. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(3):275–80.PubMed
Warren MP, Perlroth NE. The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system. J Endocrinol. 2001;170(1):3–11.PubMed
De Souza MJ, Maguire MS, Rubin KR, et al. Effects of menstrual phase and amenorrhea on exercise performance in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(5):575–80.PubMed
Beidleman BA, Rock PB, Muza SR, et al. Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86(5):1519–26.PubMed
Stachenfeld NS, Silva C, Keefe DL. Estrogen modifies the temperature effects of progesterone. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(5):1643–9.PubMed
Williams TJ, Krahenbuhl GS. Menstrual cycle phase and running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(12):1609–18.PubMed
JansedeJonge XAK, Thompson MW, Chuter VH, et al. Exercise performance over the menstrual cycle in temperate and hot, humid conditions. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(11):2190–8.
Pivarnik JM, Marichal CJ, Spillman T, et al. Menstrual cycle phase affects temperature regulation during endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992;72(2):543–8.PubMed
Hessemer V, Bruck K. Influence of menstrual cycle on thermoregulatory, metabolic, and heart rate responses to exercise at night. J Appl Physiol. 1985;59(6):1911–7.PubMed
Smekal G, von Duvillard SP, Frigo P, et al. Menstrual cycle: no effect on exercise cardiorespiratory variables or blood lactate concentration. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(7):1098–106.PubMed
Dean TM, Perreault L, Mazzeo RS, et al. No effect of menstrual cycle phase on lactate threshold. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(6):2537–43.PubMed
Zderic TW, Coggan AR, Ruby BC. Glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during exercise in the follicular and luteal phases. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90(2):447–53.PubMed
Tsampoukos A, Peckham EA, James R, et al. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on sprinting performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(4):659–67.PubMed
Sunderland C, Nevill M. Effect of the menstrual cycle on performance of intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running in a hot environment. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;88(4–5):345–52.PubMed
Maia H Jr, Casoy J. Non-contraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptives. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2008;13(1):17–24.PubMed
Rechichi C, Dawson B, Goodman C. Athletic performance and the oral contraceptive. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4(2):151–62.PubMed
Rechichi C, Dawson B. Effect of oral contraceptive cycle phase on performance in team sport players. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12(1):190–5.PubMed
Casazza GA, Suh S-H, Miller BF, et al. Effects of oral contraceptives on peak exercise capacity. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93(5):1698–702.PubMed
Lebrun CM, Petit MA, McKenzie DC, et al. Decreased maximal aerobic capacity with use of a triphasic oral contraceptive in highly active women: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(4):315–20.PubMedCentralPubMed
Brooks JHM, Fuller CW. The influence of methodological issues on the results and conclusions from epidemiological studies of sports injuries: illustrative examples. Sports Med. 2006;36(6):459–72.PubMed
Ostenberg A, Roos H. Injury risk factors in female European football. A prospective study of 123 players during one season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000;10(5):279–85.PubMed
Söderman K, Pietilä T, Alfredson H, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young females playing soccer at senior levels. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002;12(2):65–8.PubMed
Soligard T, Grindem H, Bahr R, et al. Are skilled players at greater risk of injury in female youth football? Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(15):1118–23.PubMed
Junge A, Dvorak J. Soccer injuries. Sports Med. 2004;34(13):929–38.PubMed
Junge A, Dvorak J. Injuries in female football players in top-level international tournaments. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(Suppl 1):i3–7.PubMedCentralPubMed
Jacobson I, Tegner Y. Injuries among Swedish female elite football players: a prospective population study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17(1):84–91.PubMed
Tegnander A, Olsen OE, Moholdt TT, et al. Injuries in Norwegian female elite soccer: a prospective one-season cohort study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(2):194–8.PubMed
Le Gall F, Carling C, Reilly T. Injuries in young elite female soccer players: an 8-season prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(2):276–84.PubMed
Faude O. Injuries in female soccer players: a prospective study in the German national league. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(11):1694–700.PubMed
Giza E, Mithöfer K, Farrell L, et al. Injuries in women’s professional soccer. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(4):212–6.PubMedCentralPubMed
Hägglund M, Waldén M, Ekstrand J. UEFA injury study—an injury audit of European Championships 2006 to 2008. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(7):483–9.PubMed
Engström B, Johansson C, Törnkvist H. Soccer injuries among elite female players. Am J Sports Med. 1991;19(4):372–5.PubMed
Söderman K, Adolphson J, Lorentzon R, et al. Injuries in adolescent female players in European football: a prospective study over one outdoor soccer season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11(5):299–304.PubMed
Hawkins RD, Fuller CW. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs. Br J Sports Med. 1999;33(3):196–203.PubMedCentralPubMed
Hägglund M, Waldén M, Bahr R, et al. Methods for epidemiological study of injuries to professional football players: developing the UEFA model. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(6):340–6.PubMedCentralPubMed
Ekstrand J, Hilding J. The incidence and differential diagnosis of acute groin injuries in male soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;9(2):98–103.
Hägglund M, Waldén M, Atroshi I. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players—design of a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10(1):75.PubMedCentralPubMed
Waldén M, Hägglund M, Magnusson H, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football: a prospective three-cohort study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(1):11–9.PubMed
Wild CY, Steele JR, Munro BJ. Why do girls sustain more anterior cruciate ligament injuries than boys? Sports Med. 2012;42(9):733–49.PubMed
Gottlob CA, Baker CL. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: socioeconomic issues and cost effectiveness. Am J Orthop. 2000;29(6):472–6.PubMed
Hewett TE. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 1, mechanisms and risk factors. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(2):299–311.PubMed
Steffen K, Andersen TE, Krosshaug T, et al. ECSS position statement 2009: prevention of acute sports injuries. Eur J Sport Sci. 2010;10(4):223–36.
Myer GD, Ford KR, Paterno MV, et al. The effects of generalized joint laxity on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in young female athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(6):1073–80.PubMedCentralPubMed
Shambaugh JP, Klein A, Herbert JH. Structural measures as predictors of injury in basketball players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(5):522–7.PubMed
Silvers HJ, Mandelbaum BR. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(Suppl 1):i52–9.PubMedCentralPubMed
Malinzak RA, Colby SM, Kirkendall DT, et al. A comparison of knee joint motion patterns between men and women in selected athletic tasks. Clin Biomech. 2001;16(5):438–45.
Yu B, McClure SB, Onate JA, et al. Age and gender effects on lower extremity kinematics of youth soccer players in a stop-jump task. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(9):1356–64.PubMed
Ryder SH, Johnson RJ. Prevention of ACL injuries. J Sport Rehabil. 1997;6(2):80–96.
Faunø P, Wulff Jakobsen B. Mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(1):75–9.PubMed
Hewett TE, Zazulak BT, Myer GD. Effects of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(4):659–68.PubMed
Hewett TE. Neuromuscular and hormonal factors associated with knee injuries in female athletes. Strategies for intervention. Sports Med. 2000;29(5):313–27.PubMed
Nielsen JM, Hammar M. Sports injuries and oral contraceptive use. Sports Med. 1991;12(3):152–60.
Martineau PA, Al-Jassir F, Lenczner E, et al. Effect of the oral contraceptive pill on ligamentous laxity. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14(5):281–6.PubMed
Bennell K, White S, Crossley K. The oral contraceptive pill: a revolution for sportswomen? Br J Sports Med. 1999;33(4):231–8.PubMedCentralPubMed
Möller-Nielsen J, Hammar M. Women’s soccer injuries in relation to the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive use. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989;21(2):126–9.PubMed
Andersson H, Ekblom B, Krustrup P. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(2):113–22.PubMed
Tamer K, Gunay M, Tiryaki G, et al. Physiological characteristics of Turkish female soccer players. In: Reilly T, Bangsbo J, Hughes M, editors. Science and football III. London: E and FN Spon; 1997. p. 37–9.
Evangelista M, Pandolfi O, Fanton F, et al. A functional model of female soccer players: analysis of functional characteristics. J Sports Sci. 1992;10:165.