Sports Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 8, pp 1055–1069

Medical Services at Ultra-Endurance Foot Races in Remote Environments: Medical Issues and Consensus Guidelines

  • Martin D. Hoffman
  • Andy Pasternak
  • Ian R. Rogers
  • Morteza Khodaee
  • John C. Hill
  • David A. Townes
  • Bernd Volker Scheer
  • Brian J. Krabak
  • Patrick Basset
  • Grant S. Lipman
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s40279-014-0189-3

Cite this article as:
Hoffman, M.D., Pasternak, A., Rogers, I.R. et al. Sports Med (2014) 44: 1055. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0189-3

Abstract

An increasing participation in ultra-endurance foot races is cause for greater need to ensure the presence of appropriate medical care at these events. Unique medical challenges result from the extreme physical demands these events place on participants, the often remote settings spanning broad geographical areas, and the potential for extremes in weather conditions and various environmental hazards. Medical issues in these events can adversely affect race performance, and there is the potential for the presentation of life-threatening issues such as exercise-associated hyponatremia, severe altitude illnesses, and major trauma from falls or animal attacks. Organization of a medical support system for ultra-endurance foot races starts with a determination of the level of medical support that is appropriate and feasible for the event. Once that is defined, various legal considerations and organizational issues must be addressed, and medical guidelines and protocols should be developed. While there is no specific or universal standard of medical care for ultra-endurance foot races since a variety of factors determine the level and type of medical services that are appropriate and feasible, the minimum level of services that each event should have in place is a plan for emergency transport of injured or ill participants, pacers, spectators and event personnel to local medical facilities.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin D. Hoffman
    • 1
    • 12
  • Andy Pasternak
    • 2
  • Ian R. Rogers
    • 3
    • 4
  • Morteza Khodaee
    • 5
  • John C. Hill
    • 5
  • David A. Townes
    • 6
  • Bernd Volker Scheer
    • 7
    • 8
  • Brian J. Krabak
    • 9
  • Patrick Basset
    • 10
  • Grant S. Lipman
    • 11
  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (117), Department of Veterans AffairsNorthern California Health Care SystemSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Silver Sage Sport Performance and Silver Sage Center for Family MedicineRenoUSA
  3. 3.St. John of God Murdoch HospitalMurdochAustralia
  4. 4.University of Notre DameMurdochAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Family MedicineUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineDenverUSA
  6. 6.Department of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine and Department of Global HealthUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  7. 7.Borders General HospitalMelroseUK
  8. 8.Team AxarsportAlicanteSpain
  9. 9.Department of Rehabilitation, Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineUniversity of Washington and Seattle Children’s Sports MedicineSeattleUSA
  10. 10.DokeverPierre-BéniteFrance
  11. 11.Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of SurgeryStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  12. 12.Department of Physical Medicine & RehabilitationUniversity of California Davis Medical CenterSacramentoUSA