Shephard RJ. The developing understanding of human health and fitness: 8. The modern era. Health Fit J Can. 2013;6 (in press).
Taylor J. London 2012: Islamic Olympians embrace Ramadan fasting despite UK’s long summer days making it a gruelling ordeal. Independent. 31 July 2012.
Maughan RJ, Al-Kharusi W, Binnett MS, et al. Fasting and sports: a summary statement of the IOC workshop. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:457.PubMed
BaHammam A, Alrajeh M, Albatain M, et al. Circadian pattern of sleep, energy expenditure, and body temperature of young health men during the intermittent fasting of Ramadan. Appetite. 2010;54:426–9.PubMed
Roy J, Ooi CH, Singh R, et al. Self-generated coping strategies among Muslim athletes during Ramadan fasting. J Sports Sci Med. 2011;10:137–44.PubMed
Roky R, Horrora CP, Ahmed Q. Sleep in athletes and the effects of Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S75–84.PubMed
BaHammam A. Assessment of sleep patterns, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype during Ramadan in fasting and nonfasting individuals. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:616–22.PubMed
Waterhouse J, Alabed H, Edwards B, et al. Changes in sleep, mood and subjective and objective responses to physical performance during the daytime in Ramadan. Biol Rhythm Res. 2009;40:367–83.
Waterhouse J, Alkib L, Reilly T. Effects of Ramadan upon fluid and food intake, fatigue, and physical and mental, and social activities: a comparison between the UK and Libya. Chronobiol Int. 2008;25:697–724.PubMed
Meckel Y, Ismael A, Eliakim A. The effect of the Ramadan fast on physical performance and dietary habits in adolescent soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;102:651–7.PubMed
Karli U, Güvenç A, Aslan A, et al. Influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performance and recovery from short high intensity exercise. J Sport Sci Med. 2007;6:490–7.
Wilson D, Drust B, Reilly T. Is diurnal lifestyle altered during Ramadan in professional Muslim athletes? Biol Rhythm Res. 2009;40:385–97.
Singh R, Hwa OC, Roy J, et al. Subjective perceptions of sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Malaysian junior Muslim athletes during Ramadan intermittent fasting. Asian J Sports Med. 2011;2:167–76.PubMed
Leiper JB, Junge A, Maughan RJ, et al. Alteration of subjective feelings in football players undertaking their usual training and match schedule during the Ramadan fast. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(Suppl. 3):S55–69.PubMed
Zerguini Y, Dvorak J, Maughan RJ, et al. Influence of Ramadan fasting on physiological and performance variables in football players: summary of the F-MARC 2006 Ramadan fasting study. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(Suppl. 3):S3–6.PubMed
Chennaoui M, Desgorces F, Drogou C, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters in middle-distance runners. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34:587–94.PubMed
Herrera C. Total sleep time in Muslim football players is reduced during Ramadan: a pilot study on the standardized assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S85–91.PubMed
Zerguini Y, Kirkendall D, Junge A, et al. Impact of Ramadan on physical performance in professional soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:398–400.PubMed
Waterhouse J. Effects of Ramadan on physical performance: chronobiological considerations. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:509–15.PubMed
Samuels C. Sleep, recovery and performance: the new frontier in high performance athletics. Neurol Clin. 2008;26:169–80.PubMed
Alkandari JR, Maughan RJ, Roky R, et al. The implications of Ramadan fasting for human health and well-being. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S9–19.PubMed
Reilly T, Waterhouse J. Sports performance: is there evidence that the body clock plays a role? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:321–32.PubMed
Racinais S, Périard JD, Li CK, et al. Activity patterns, body composition and muscle function during Ramadan in a Middle-East country. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:641–6.PubMed
Al-Hourani HM, Atoum MF. Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan. Singap Med J. 2007;48:906–10.
Afifi Z-M. Daily practices, study performance and health during the Ramadan fast. J Roy Soc Health. 1997;117:231–5.
Soh KG, Soh KL, Ruby H, et al. Comparing physical activity of Malay men before, during and after Ramadan. Afr J Phys Health Educ Recr Dance. 2010;16(1):7–77.
BaHammam A. Sleep patterns, daytime sleepiness and eating habits during the month of Ramadan. Sleep Hypn. 2003;5:165–72.
Poh B, Zawiah H, Ismail M, et al. Changes in body weight, dietary intake and activity pattern of adolescents during Ramadan. Malays J Nutr. 1996;2:1–10.PubMed
Wilson NC. Pedometer assessed physical activity of urban Malaysian youth. Institut Sukan Negara (Nat Sports Inst) Bull. 2009;2:9–18.
Atkinson G, Edwards B, Reilly T, et al. Exercise as a synchroniser of human circadian rhythms; an update and discussion of the methodological problems. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;99:331–41.PubMed
Roky R, Chapotot F, Hakkou F, et al. Sleep during Ramadan intermittent fasting. J Sleep Res. 2001;10:319–27.PubMed
Roky R, Houti I, Moussamih S, et al. Physiological and chronobiological changes during Ramadan intermittent fasting. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004;48:296–303.PubMed
Drust B, Ahmed Q, Roky R. Circadian variation and soccer performance: implications for training and match-play during Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S43–52.PubMed
Taoudi Benchekroun M, Roky R, Toufiq J, et al. Epidemiological study: chronotype and daytime sleepiness before and during Ramadan. Thérapie. 1999;54:567–72.PubMed
El Ati J, Beji C, Danguir J. Increased fat oxidation during Ramadan fasting in healthy women: an adaptative mechanism for body-weight maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:302–7.PubMed
Sweileh N, Schnitzler A, Hunter GR, et al. Body composition and energy metabolism in resting and exercising Muslims during Ramadan fast. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1992;32:156–63.
Roky R, Iraki L, Haj Khilfla R, et al. Daytime alertness, mood, psychomotor performances, and oral temperature during Ramadan intermittent fasting. Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44:101–7.PubMed
Roky R. Les variations physiologiques et comportementales pendant le Ramadan (Physiological and behavioural changes during Ramadan). Biomatec Echo. 2007;2(5):8–16
Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y. Ramadan fasting alters endocrine and neuroendocrine circadian patterns: meal-time as a synchronizer in humans? Life Sci. 2001;68:1607–15.PubMed
al-Hadramy MS, Zawawi TH, Abdelwahabm SM. Altered cortisol levels in relation to Ramadan. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988;42:359–62.PubMed
Ben Salem L, B’chir S, Bchir F, et al. Circadian rhythm of cortisol and its responsiveness to ACTH during Ramadan [in French]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2002;63:497–501.
Dwivedi S, Nalini K, Assim MO. Metabolic alterations during Ramadan fast. Indian J Clin Biochem. 1996;11:171–2.
BaHammam A. Effect of fasting during Ramadan on sleep architecture, daytime sleepiness and sleep pattern. Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2004;2:135–43.
Mesbahzadeh B, Ghiravani Z, Mehrjoofard H. Effect of Ramadan fasting on secretion of sex hormones in healthy single males. Rev Santé Méd Orient/East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:1120–3.
Hartman ML, Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML, et al. Augmented growth hormone (GH) secretory burst frequency and amplitude mediate enhanced GH secretion during a two day fast in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;74:757–64.PubMed
Bang P, Brismar K, Rosenfeld RG, et al. Fasting affects serum insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins differently in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus versus healthy nonobese and obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;78:860–967.
Fedail SS, Murphy D, Salib SY, et al. Changes in certain blood constituents during Ramadan. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;36:350–3.PubMed
Azizi F. Serum levels of prolactin, thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, TRH responsiveness and male reproductive function in intermittent Islamic fasting. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 1991;5:145–8.
Sajid KM, Akhtar M, Malik GQ. Ramadan fasting and thyroid hormone profile. J Pak Med Assoc. 1991;41:213–6.PubMed
Sulimani RA. The effects of Ramadan fasting on thyroid functions in healthy male subjects. Nutr Res. 1988;8:549–52.
Azizi F, Nafarabadi M, Amini M. Serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin concentrations during Ramadan in healthy women. Emir Med J. 1994;12:140–3.
Bouhlel E, Zaouali M, Miled A, et al. Ramadan fasting and the GH/IGF-I axis of trained men during submaximal exercise. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52:261–6.PubMed
Degoutte F, Jouanel P, Bègue RJ, et al. Food restriction, performance, biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in judo athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27:9–18.PubMed
Souissi N, Souissi H, Sahli S, et al. Effect of Ramadan on the diurnal variation in short-term high power output. Chronobiol Int. 2007;24:991–1007.PubMed
Bouhlel H, Shephard RJ, Gmada N, et al. Effect of Ramadan observance on maximal muscular performance of trained men. Clin J Sports Med. 2013;23:222–7.
Dolu N, Yūksek A, Sizer A, et al. Arousal and continuous attention during Ramadan intermittent fasting. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;18:315–22.PubMed
Lagarde D, Bategat D, Boussif M, et al. Ramadan et vigilance (Ramadan and vigilance). Méd Aéronaut Spa. 1996;35:175–82.
Laraqui S, Manar N, Laraqui O, et al. Influence of Ramadan observance on wakefulness at work among health care workers in Morocco [in French]. Arch Mal Prof Environ. 2012;73(5):743–749. doi:10.1016/j.admp.2012.05.002
Karaağaoğlu N, Yűcecan S. Some behavioural changes observed among fasting subjects, their nutritional habits and energy expenditure in Ramadan. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000;51:125–34.PubMed
Roky R, Chapotot F, Benchekroun MT, et al. Daytime sleepiness during Ramadan intermittent fasting: polysomnographic and quantitative waking EEG study. J Sleep Res. 2003;12:95–101.PubMed
BaHammam A. Does Ramadan fasting affect sleep? Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:1631–7.PubMed
Margolis SA, Reed RL. Effect of religious practices of Ramadan on sleep and perceived sleepiness of medical students. Teach Learn Med. 2004;16:145–9.PubMed
El Moutawakil B, Hassounr S, Sibai M, et al. Effect of Ramadan fasting upon functions of attention [in French]). Rev Neurol. 2007;163(Suppl. 4):60.
Hakkou F, Wast D, Jaouan C. Does Ramadan impair vigilance and memory? Psychopharmacology. 1988;96:213.
Hakkou F, Iraki L, Tazi A. Ramadan, chronobiology and health. Chronobiol Int. 1994;11:340–2.PubMed
Khazaie H, Tahmasian M, Ekhtiari H, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on time perception task. Neuroscience. 2009;14:196–7.
Doniger GM, Simon EY, Zivotofsky AZ. Comprehensive computerized assessment of cognitive sequelae of a complete 12–16 hour fast. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:804–16.PubMed
Ali MR, Amir T. Effects of fasting on visual flicker fusion. Percept Motor Skills. 1989;69:627–31.PubMed
Lofti S, Madani M, Abassi A, et al. CNS activation, reaction time, blood pressure and heart rate variation during Ramadan intermittent fasting and exercise. World J Sports Sci. 2010;3:37–43.
Chaouachi A, Leiper JB, Souissi N, et al. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on sports performance and training: a review. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4:419–34.PubMed
Tian H-H, Aziz A-R, Png W, et al. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on cognitive function in Muslim athletes. Asian J Sports Med. 2011;2:145–53.PubMed
Leiper JB, Watson P, Evans G, et al. Intensity of a training session during Ramadan in fasting and non-fasting Tunisian youth football players. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(Suppl. 3):571–9.
Angel J, Schwarz N. Metabolic changes resulting from decreased meal frequency in adult male Muslims during Ramadan fast. Nutr Rep Int. 1975;11:29–38.
Hallack MH, Nomani MZ. Body weight loss and changes in blood lipid levels in normal men on hypocaloric diets during Ramadan fasting. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48:1197–210.
Westerterp KR, Saris WHM, van Es M, et al. Use of the doubly labeled water technique in humans during heavy sustained exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1986;61:2162–7.PubMed
Mujika I, Chaouachi A, Chamari K. Precompetition taper and nutritional strategies: special reference to training during Ramadan intermittent fast. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:495–501.PubMed
Gleeson M, Greenhaff PL, Maughan RJ. Influence of a 24 h fast on high intensity cycle exercise performance in man. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1988;57:653–9.
Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Roky R, et al. Lipid profiles of judo athletes during Ramadan. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29:282–8.PubMed
Ramadan J. Does fasting during Ramadan alter body composition, blood constituents and physical performance? Med Princ Pract. 2002;11(Suppl. 2):41–6.PubMed
Beltaifa L, Bouguerra R, Ben Slama C, et al. (Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan [in French]. East Mediterr Health J. 2002;8:603–11.PubMed
Bouhlel E, Salhi Z, Bouhlel H, et al. Effect of Ramadan fasting on fuel oxidation during exercise in trained male rugby players. Diabetes Metab. 2006;32:617–24.PubMed
Bouhlel E, Zaouali M, Denguezli M, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations, biochemical parameters and body composition in trained young men. Int J Sport Nutr Metab. 2008;18:617–27.
Krebs KA. The metabolic fate of amino acids. In: Munro HN, Allison JB, editors. Mammalian protein metabolism. New York: Academic Press; 1964. p. 125–77.
Afrasiabi A, Hassanzadeh S, Sattarivand R, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid profiles on 2 hyperlipidemic groups with or without diet pattern. Saudi Med J. 2003;24:23–6.PubMed
Born M, Elmadfa I, Schmahl FW. Effects of periodic fluid and food withdrawal [in German]. Muench Med Wschr. 1979;121:1569–72.
Fakhrzadeh H, Larihani B, Sanjari M, et al. Effect of Ramadan fasting on clinical and biochemical parameters in healthy adults. Ann Saudi Med. 2003;23:223–6.PubMed
Grantham JR, Belhaj J, Balasekaran J. The effect of four weeks’ fasting during Ramadan on body composition in Muslim Arab males. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;37(Suppl. 5):293.
Husain R, Duncan MT, Cheah SH, et al. Effects of fasting in Ramadan on tropical Asiatic Moslems. Br J Nutr. 1987;58:41–8.PubMed
Khan A, Kharzak AMAK. Islamic fasting: an effective strategy for prevention of obesity. Pak J Nutr. 2002;1:185–7.
Krifi M, Ben Salem M, Ben Rayana MC, et al. Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians in Ramadan [in French]. J Méd Nutr. 1989;25:223–8.
Muazzam MG, Khaleque KA. Effect of fasting in Ramadan. J Trop Med Hyg. 1959;1959(62):292–4.
Rahman M, Rashid MB, Sultara S, et al. Improved serum HDL cholesterol profile among Bangladeshi male students during Ramadan fasting. East Mediterr J Health. 2004;10:131–7.
Schmahl FW, Metzler B, Born M, et al. Ramadan: health risk during the months of fasting [in German]. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 1988;85:B842–4.
Stannard SR, Thompson MW. The effect of participation in Ramadan on substrate selection during submaximal cycling exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2008;11:510–7.PubMed
Takruri HB. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body weight. Saudi Med J. 1989;10:491–4.
Adlouni A, Ghalim N, Benslimane A, et al. Fasting during Ramadan induces a marked increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Ann Nutr Metab. 1997;41:242–9.PubMed
Barkia A, Mohammed K, Smaoui M, et al. Change of diet, plasma lipids, lipoproteins and fatty acids during Ramadan: a controversial association of the considered Ramadan model with atherosclerosis risk. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011;29:486–93.PubMed
Frost G, Pirani S. Meal frequency and nutritional intake during Ramadan: a pilot study. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1987;41:47–50.PubMed
Laajam MA. Ramadan fasting and non-insulin-dependent diabetes: effect on metabolic control. East Afr Med J. 1990;67:732–6.PubMed
Lamine F, Bouguerra R, Jabrane J, et al. Food intake and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels changes during Ramadan fasting in healthy young subjects. Tunis Med. 2006;64:647–50.
Morilla RG, Rodrigo JR, Caravaca AS, et al. Dietary modifications in young Muslims who practice Ramadan fasting [in French]). Nutr Hospitalaria. 2009;24:738–43.
Ramadan J. Medical principles and practice: does fasting during Ramadan alter body composition, blood constituents and physical performance? Int J Kuwait Univ Health Sci Centre. 2002;11(Suppl. 2):41–6.
Faye J, Fll A, Badji L, et al. Effects of Ramadan fast on weight, performance and glycemia during training for resistance [in French]. Dakar Méd. 2005;50:146–51.PubMed
Maughan RJ, Bartagi Z, Dvorak J, et al. Dietary intake and body composition of football players during the holy month of Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(Suppl. 3):S20–38.
Chiha F. Effects of Ramadan fasting on aerobic performance and anthropometric and biochemical parameters in footballers [in French]. Sci Humaine. 2008;A:25–41.
Chiha F. Changes in metabolism and the energetics of exercise in footballers during Ramadan fasting [in French]. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Algiers, 2008/09.
Shaygan Asl N. The effects of Ramadan fasting on endurance running performance in male athletes. Int J Sport Stud. 2011;1:18–22.
Memari A-H, Kordh R, Panahl N, et al. Effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition and physical performance in female athletes. Asian J Sports Med. 2011;2:161–6.PubMed
Lemon PW. Protein and amino acid needs of the strength athlete. Int J Sport Nutr. 1991;1:127–45.PubMed
Lemon PW. Do athletes need more dietary protein and amino acids? Int J Sport Nutr. 1995;5:S39–51.PubMed
Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, MacDougall JD, et al. Evaluation of protein requirements for trained strength athletes. J Appl Physiol. 1992;73:1986–95.PubMed
Tarnopolsky M. Protein requirements for endurance athletes. Nutrition. 2004;20:662–8.PubMed
Bolster DR, Pikosky MA, Gaine PC, et al. Dietary protein intake impacts human skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rates after endurance exercise. Am J Physiol. 2005;289:E678–83.
Shephard RJ. Physical performance and training response in the athlete during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:477–84.PubMed
Ramadan J, Telahoun G, Al-Zaid NS, et al. Responses to exercise, fluid, and energy balances during Ramadan in sedentary and active males. Nutrition. 1999;15:735–9.PubMed
Chaouachi A, Coutts AJ, Chamari K, et al. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:2702–9.PubMed
McNay EC, Cotero VE. Mini-review: impact of recurrent hypoglycemia on cognitive and brain function. Physiol Behav. 2010;100:234–8.PubMed
Bentley DJ, Cox GR, Green D, et al. Maximising performance in triathlon: applied physiological and nutritional aspects of elite and non-elite competitions. J Sci Med Sport. 2008;11:407–15.PubMed
Hawley JA, Schabort EJ, Noakes TD, et al. Carbohydrate-loading and exercise performance: an update. Sports Med. 1997;24:73–81.PubMed
Kelly D, Hamilton JK, Riddell MC. Blood glucose levels and performance in a sports camp for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a field study. Int J Pediatr. 2010;2010:216167. doi:10.1155/2010/216167
Wax B, Brown SP, Webb HE, et al. Effects of carbohydrate supplementation on force output and time to exhaustion during static leg contraction superimposed with electromyostimulation. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:1717–23.PubMed
Aybak M, Türkoğlu A, Sermet A, et al. Effect of Ramadan fasting on platelet aggregation in healthy male subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1996;73:552–6.
Bigard AX, Boussif M, Chalabi H, et al. Alterations in muscular performance and orthostatic tolerance during Ramadan. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998;69:341–6.PubMed
Larijani B, Zahedi F, Sanjari M, et al. The effect of Ramadan fasting on fasting serum glucose in healthy adults. Med J Malays. 2003;58:678–80.
Ziaee V, Razaei M, Ahmadinejad Z, et al. The changes of metabolic profile and weight during Ramadan fasting. Singap Med J. 2006;47:409–14.
Gueye L, Samb A, Seck D, et al. Influence of a 12-hour fast on maximal exercise. Scripta Med (Brno). 2005;2005(77):271–6.
Ba A, Samb A, Seck D, et al. Comparative study of the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the glycaemia at rest in sportsmen and sedentary individuals [in French]. Dakar Méd. 2005;50:22–5.PubMed
Seck MB. Adaptation of the body to exercise during Ramadan fasting [in French]. Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar; 2004.
Nomani MZA. Diet during Ramadan. Int J Ramadan Res. 1999;3:1–6.
Dubuc GR, Phinney SD, Stern JS, et al. Changes of serum leptin and endocrine and metabolic parameters after 7 days of energy restriction in men and women. Metabolism. 1998;47:429–34.PubMed
Weigle D, Duell P, Connor W, et al. Effect of fasting, refeeding, and dietary fat restriction on plasma leptin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:561–5.PubMed
Kassab S, Abdul-Ghaffar T, Nagalla DS, et al. Interactions between leptin, neuropeptide-Y and insulin with chronic diurnal fasting during Ramadan. Ann Saudi Med. 2004;24:345–9.PubMed
Ramadan JM, Barac-Nieto M. Cardio-respiratory responses to moderately heavy aerobic exercise during the Ramadan fasts. Saudi Med J. 2000;21:238–44.PubMed
Adlouni A, Ghalim N, Saile R, et al. Beneficial effect on serum apo AI, apo B and Lp AI levels of Ramadan fasting. Clin Chim Acta. 1998;271:179–89.PubMed
Temizhan A, Tandogan I, Dönderici O, et al. The effect of Ramadan fasting on blood lipid levels. Am J Med. 2000;109:341–2.PubMed
Dowod TAHM. Effect of Ramadan fasting on blood lipid and sugar. Pak J Med Sci. 2004;20:308–10.
Kamal S, Ahmad QS, Sayedda K, et al. Effect of Islamic fasting on lipid profile, total protein and albumin on healthy Muslim male subjects of Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. Nat J Med Res. 2012;2:407–10.
Maislos M, Khamayi N, Assali A. Marked increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after prolonged fasting during Ramadan. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:640–2.PubMed
Maislos M, Khamaysi N, Assali A, et al. Gorging and plasma HDL cholesterol: the Ramadan model. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52:127–30.PubMed
Nematy M, Alinnezhad-Namaghi M, Rashed MM, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study. Nutr J. 2012;11:69–75.PubMed
Shebab A, Abdulle A, El Issa A, et al. Favorable changes in lipid profile: the effects of fasting after Ramadan. Plos One. 2012;7(10):e47615. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047615
Abdullah A, Othmane AL. Fasting during Ramadan. J Islam Med Assoc. 1989;21:180–2.
Armstrong LE, Costill DL, Fink WJ. Influence of diuretic-induced dehydration on competitive running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985;17:456–61.PubMed
Maughan RJ, Shirrefs SM. Hydration and performance during Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S33–41.PubMed
Leiper JB, Carnie A, Maughan RJ. Water turnover rates in sedentary and exercising middle aged men. Br J Sports Med. 1996;30:24–6.PubMed
Mustafa KY, Mahmoud NA, Gumaa KA, et al. The effects of fasting in Ramadan: 2. Fluid and electrolyte balance. Br J Nutr. 1978;40:583–9.PubMed
Prentice AM, Lamb WH, Prentice A, et al. The effect of water abstention on milk synthesis in lactating women. Clin Sci. 1984;66:291–8.PubMed
Fall A, Sarr M, Mandengue S-H, et al. Effects of prolonged fluid and food restriction. [Ramadan] on performance and cardiovascular responses during an incremental exercise in a hot tropical environment [in French]. Sci Sports. 2007;22:50–3.
Siddiqui QA, Sabir S, Subhan MM. The effect of Ramadan fasting on spirometry in healthy subjects. Respirology. 2005;10:525–8.PubMed
Furuncuoglu Y, Karaca E, Aras S, et al. Metabolic, biochemical and psychiatric alterations in healthy subjects during Ramadan. Pak J Nutr. 2007;6:209–11.
Cheah SH, Ch’ng SL, Husain R, et al. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on urinary excretion in Malaysian Muslims. Br J Nutr. 1990;63:329–37.PubMed
Leiper JB, Prastowow S-M. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on water turnover in men living in the tropics. J Physiol. 2000;528:43P.
Shirreffs SM, Maughan RJ. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(Suppl. 3):S47–54.PubMed
Atkinson G, Reilly T. Circadian variation in athletic performance. Sports Med. 1996;21:292–312.PubMed
Reilly T, Waterhouse J. Altered sleep-wake cycles and food intake: the Ramadan model. Physiol Behav. 2007;90:219–28.PubMed
Beelen M, Burke LM, Gibala MJ, et al. Nutritional strategies to promote post-exercise recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Metab. 2010;20:515–32.
Hartman JW, Tang JE, Wilkinson SB, et al. Consumption of fat-free milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:373–81.PubMed
Hawley JA, Gibala MJ, Bermon S. Innovations in athletic preparation: role of substrate availability to modify training adaptation and performance. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(Suppl. 1):S115–24.PubMed
Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:161–8.PubMed
Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, et al. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:386–92.PubMed
Rodriguez NR, Vislocky LM, Gaine PC. Dietary protein, endurance exercise, and human skeletal muscle protein turnover. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007;10:40–5.PubMed
Tipton KD, Elliot TA, Cree MG, et al. Timing of amino-acid carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol. 2001;2001(281):E197–206.
Tipton KD, Elliot TA, Cree MG, et al. Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. Am J Physiol. 2007;292:E71–6.
Churchley EG, Coffey VG, Pedersen DJ, et al. Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on transcriptional activity of metabolic and myogenic genes in well-trained humans. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102:1604–11.PubMed
Kirkendall DT, Leiper JB, Bartagi Z, et al. The influence of Ramadan on physical performance measures in young Muslim footballers. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(Suppl. 3):S15–27.PubMed
Kirkendall DT, Chaouachi A, Aziz A-R, et al. Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl 1):S103–8.PubMed
Kordi R, Abdullahi M, Memari M-H, et al. Investigating two different training time frames during Ramadan. Asian J Sports Med. 2011;2:205–10.PubMed
Chtourou H, Hammouda O, Chaouachi A, et al. The effect of time of day and Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performances. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:142–7.PubMed
Chaouachi A, Leiper JB, Chtourou H, et al. The effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on athletic performance: recommendations for the maintenance of physical fitness. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S53–73.PubMed
Fallah J. Ramadan fasting and exercise performance. Asian J Sports Med. 2010;1:130.
Maughan RJ, Fallah J, Coyle EF. The effects of fasting on metabolism and performance. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:490–4.PubMed
Shephard RJ. The impact of Ramadan observance upon athletic performance. Nutrients. 2012;4:491–505.PubMed
Khedder A, Achour N, Abou-Messad N, et al. Comparative study of the adaptation of the body to cycle ergometry during and after Ramadan [in French]. Méd Sport. 1983;57:16–7.
Souissi N, Souissi M, Souissi H, et al. Effect of time of day and partial sleep deprivation on short-term, high-power output. Chronobiol Int. 2008;25:1062–76.PubMed
El-Sayed MS, Balme J, Rattu AJ. Carbohydrate ingestion improves endurance performance during a 1 h simulated cycling time trial. J Sports Sci. 1997;15:223–30.PubMed
Brisswalter J, Bouhlel E, Falola JM, et al. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on middle-distance running performance in well-trained runners. Clin J Sports Med. 2011;21:422–7.
Mehdioui H, Aberkane A, Bouroubi O, et al. Influence de la pratique du jeûne Ramadan sur l’endurance maximale aérobie des coureurs de fond (Influence of Ramadan fasting on the maximal aerobic endurance of distance runners). J Algér Méd. 1996;6(1).
Hamouda O, Chtourou H, Farjallah MA, et al. The effect of Ramadan fasting on the diurnal variations in aerobic and anaerobic performances in Tunisian youth soccer players. Biol Rhythm Res. 2012;43:177–90.
Sweileh NA. The effects of Ramadan fasting on maximum oxygen intake and maximum performance. Birmingham: University of Alabama; 1988.
Aziz AR, Png W. Ramadan fasting and sports performance. In: Lanham-New S, Stear S, Shirrefs S, et al., editors. Sports and exercise nutrition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
Aziz AR, Wahid MF, Png W, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on 60 min of endurance running performance in moderately trained men. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:516–21.PubMed
Chtourou H, Hammouda O, Chaouachi A, et al. The effect of Ramadan fasting on physical performances, mood state and perceived exertion in young footballers. Asian J Sports Med. 2011;2:177–85.PubMed
Aziz A-R, Chia M, Singh R, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on perceived exercise intensity during high-intensity interval training sessions in elite youth football players. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2011;6:87–98.
Al-Hadramy MS. Seasonal variations of urinary stone colic in Arabia. J Pak Med Assoc. 1997;47:281–4.PubMed
Leiper JB, Molla AM, Molla AM. Effects on health of fluid restriction during fasting in Ramadan. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(Suppl. 2):S30–8.PubMed
Garcia-Bunuel L. Clinical problems during the fast of Ramadan. Lancet. 1989;i:1396.
Asgary S, Aghaei F, Naderi GA, et al. Peroxidation, serum lipids and fasting blood sugar. Med J Islam Acad Med Sci. 2000;13:35–8.
Temizhan A, Donderici O, Ouz D, et al. Is there any effect of Ramadan fasting on acute coronary heart disease events? Int J Cardiol. 1999;70:149–53.PubMed
Al Suwaidi J, Bener A, Gehani AA, et al. Does the circadian pattern for acute cardiac events presentation vary with fasting? J Postgrad Med. 2006;252:30–3.
El-Mitwalli A, Zaher AA, El Menshawi E. Circadian rhythm of stroke onset during the month of Ramadan. Acta Neurol Scand. 2010;122:97–101.PubMed
Chamsi-Pasha H, Ahmed WH. The effect of fasting in Ramadan on patients with heart disease. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:47–51.PubMed
Al-Jewari MMM, Mohammed KLA, Al-Hakim SAG. Effect of Ramadan fasting on clinical, biochemical and immunological parameters in healthy fasting and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Iraqi Postgrad Med J. 2007;6:272–5.
Al Nakhi A, Al Arouj M, Kandari A, et al. Multiple insulin injection during fasting Ramadan in IDDM patients. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Health and Ramadan, 1997 Dec 1–3; Istanbul, Turkey. Morocco: FRSMR (Hassan II Foundation for Scientific and Medical Research on Ramadan).
Athar S, Habib M. Management of stable type II diabetes NIDDM during Ramadan fasting. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Health and Ramadan, 1994. Morocco: FRSMR (Hassan II Foundation for Scientific and Medical Research on Ramadan).
Azizi F, Rasouli HA. Serum glucose, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, protein and albumin concentrations during Ramadan. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 1987;1:38–41.
Das R. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan: a narrative review of the literature. Ital J Public Health. 2011;8:247–54.
Elnasri H, Ahmed AM. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood levels of glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol among type II diabetic patients. Sudan J Publ Health. 2006;1:203–6.
Katibi IA, Akande AA, Bojuwoye BJ, et al. Blood sugar among fasting Muslims with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ilorin. Niger J Med. 2001;10:132–4.PubMed
Klocker N, Belkhadir J, El Ghomari H et al. Effects of extreme chrono-biological diet alternations during Ramadan on metabolism in NIDDM diabetes with oral treatment. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Health and Ramadan, Dec 1–3, 1997; Istanbul, Turkey. Morocco: FRSMR (Hassan II Foundation for Scientific and Medical Research on Ramadan).
Kobeissy A, Zantout M, Azar S. Suggested insulin regimens for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who wish to fast during the month of Ramadan. Clin Ther. 2008;30:1408–15.PubMed
Mafauzy M, Mohammed WB, Anum MY, et al. A study of the fasting diabetic patients during the month of Ramadan. Med J Malays. 1990;45:14–7.
Omar M, Motala A. Fasting in Ramadan and the diabetic patient. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:1925–6.PubMed
Rashed H. The fast of Ramadan: no problem for the well. The sick should avoid fasting. BMJ. 1992;304:521–2.PubMed
Sulimani RA. Ramadan fasting: medical aspects in health and disease. Ann Saudi Med. 1991;11:637–41.PubMed
Davidson JC. Muslims, Ramadan and diabetes mellitus. BMJ. 1979;ii:1511–2.
Tang C, Rolfe M. Clinical problems during fast of Ramadan. Lancet. 1989;i:1396.
Ennigrou S, Zenaidi M, Ben Slama F, et al. Ramadan and customs of life: investigation with 84 adult residents in the district of Tunis [in French]. Tunis Méd. 2001;79:508–14.PubMed
Kadri N, Tilane A, El Batal M, et al. Irritability during the month of Ramadan. Psychosomat Med. 2000;62:280–5.
Shanks NJ, Ansari M, Al-Kalai D. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. Public Health. 1994;108:27–34.PubMed
Bener A, Absood GH, Achan NV, et al. Road traffic injuries in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. J Roy Soc Health. 1992;112:273–6.
Langford EJ, Ishaque MA, Fothergill J, et al. The effect of the fast of Ramadan on accident and emergency attendances. J Roy Soc Med. 1994;87:517–8.PubMed
Khammash MR, Al-Shouha TF. Do road traffic accidents increase during the fasting month of Ramadan? Neuroscience (Riyadh). 2006;11:21–3.
Herrag M, Lahmiti S, Alaoui Yazidi A. Ramadan: a different side of the emergencies? Afr Health Sci. 2010;10:215–6.PubMed
Chamari BK, Haddad M, Wong DP, et al. Injury rates in professional soccer players during Ramadan. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S93–102.PubMed
Chaouachi A, Coutts AJ, Wong DP, et al. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34:907–15.PubMed
White J. Doping control presents unique challenge for 2 Ramadan-fasting Moroccan footballers. Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/07/26/doping-control-presents-u_n_1705852.html
. Accessed 13 Feb 2013.
Taylor D, MacKay D. City say Negouai drug test ‘violated’ Ramadan. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2003/nov/06/newsstory.sport7
. Accessed 13 Feb 2013.
Wallace S. Keegan’s test claim rejected. The Telegraph. 2003. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/2424842/Keegans-test-claim-rejected.html
. Accessed 12 Feb 2013.
Agence France Presse. Sport spots: anti-doping officials accused of pressuring player to break Ramadan fast. 2003. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_7-11-2003_pg2_19
. Accessed 12 Feb 2013.
Coutts AJ, Chamari K, Rampinini E, et al. Monitoring training in football: measuring and periodising training. In: Delal A, editor. Physical preparation for soccer. Paris: De Boeck Universite; 2008. p. 242–63.
Burke L. Fasting and recovery from exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:502–8.PubMed
van Loon LJC, Gibala MJ. Dietary protein to support muscle hypertrophy. In: Maughan RJ, Burke LM, editors. Sports nutrition: more than just calories—triggers for adaptation. Basel: Karger Publications; 2012.
Burke LM, King C. Ramadan fasting and the goals of sports nutrition around exercise. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(Suppl. 1):S21–31.PubMed
Laraqui CH, Tripodi D, Laraqui O, et al. The effects of fasting and of the quality of sleep on work during the month of Ramadan. Arch Mal Prof. 2001;62:A115–20.
Dement WC. Sleep extension: getting as much extra sleep as possible. Clin Sports Med. 2005;24(2):251–68.PubMed
Mah CD, Mah KE, Kezirian EJ, et al. The effect of sleep extension on the performance of collegiate basketball players. Sleep. 2011;34:943–50.PubMed
Lanham-New S, Stear S, Shirreffs S, et al. Sport and exercise nutrition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
Hawley JA. Fat adaptation science: low carbohydrate, high fat diets to alter fuel utilization and promote training adaptation. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2011;69:59–71.PubMed
Philp A, Burke LM, Baar K. Altering endogenous carbohydrate availability to support training adaptations. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2011;69:19–31.PubMed
Spriet L. Metabolic regulation of fat use during exercise and recovery. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2011;69:39–53.PubMed
Quereshi H. Ramadan and the Olympics: to fast or not to fast? The Guardian, July 22nd. 2012.http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2012/jul/22/ramadan-olympics-fasting
. Accessed 21 Feb 2013.
Trabelsi K, el-Abed K, Trepanowski JF, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on biochemical and anthropometric parameters in physically active men. Asian J Sports Med. 2011;2:134–44.PubMed
Van Rosendal SP, Osborne MA, Fassett RG, et al. Guidelines for glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration associated with exercise. Sports Med. 2010;40:113–39.PubMed
World Anti-Doping Agency. The 2012 prohibited list (2012). [Online]. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.wada-ama.org/Documents/World_Anti-Doping_Program/WADP-Prohibited-list/2012/
. Accessed 21 Feb 2013.
Evans GH, Shirreffs SM, Maughan RJ. Acute effects of ingesting glucose solutions on blood and plasma volume. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:1503–98.PubMed
Kavanagh T, Shephard RJ. On the choice of fluid for the hydration of middle-aged marathon runners. Br J Sports Med. 1977;11:26–35.PubMed
Shephard RJ. Physiology and biochemistry of exercise. New York: Praeger Publications; 1982.
Siegel R, Laursen PB. Keeping your cool: possible mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance in the heat with internal cooling methods. Sports Med. 2012;42:89–98.PubMed
Nybo L. Hyperthermia and fatigue. J Appl Physiol. 2008;104:871–8.PubMed
Saris WH, Antoine JM, Brouns F, et al. PASSCLAIM—physical performance and fitness. Eur J Nutr. 2003;42(Suppl. 1):150–95.
Yucel A, Degirmenci B, Acar M, et al. Effect of fasting month of Ramadan on the abdominal fat distribution: assessment by computed tomography. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2004;204:179–87.PubMed