Drugs & Aging

, Volume 30, Issue 10, pp 809–819

Aging, Antiretrovirals, and Adherence: A Meta Analysis of Adherence among Older HIV-Infected Individuals

Authors

  • Luwam Ghidei
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
  • Mark J. Simone
    • Division of AgingBrigham and Women’s Hospital
    • Harvard Medical School
  • Marci J. Salow
    • Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical CenterVA Boston Healthcare System
    • Department of PharmacyVA Boston Healthcare System
  • Kristin M. Zimmerman
    • Department of PharmacyVA Boston Healthcare System
    • Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
  • Allison M. Paquin
    • Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical CenterVA Boston Healthcare System
    • Department of PharmacyVA Boston Healthcare System
  • Lara M. Skarf
    • Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical CenterVA Boston Healthcare System
    • Harvard Medical School
  • Tia R. M. Kostas
    • Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical CenterVA Boston Healthcare System
    • Division of AgingBrigham and Women’s Hospital
    • Harvard Medical School
    • Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical CenterVA Boston Healthcare System
    • Division of AgingBrigham and Women’s Hospital
    • Harvard Medical School
Systematic Review

DOI: 10.1007/s40266-013-0107-7

Cite this article as:
Ghidei, L., Simone, M.J., Salow, M.J. et al. Drugs Aging (2013) 30: 809. doi:10.1007/s40266-013-0107-7

Abstract

Introduction

Older adults are generally considered to be at greater risk for medication non-adherence due to factors such as medication complexity, side effects, cost, and cognitive decline. However, this generalization may not apply to older adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Regardless of age, suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lead to increased viral load, immunosuppression, drug-resistant viral strains, co-morbidities, and opportunistic infections. Understanding trends of adherence to ART among older adults is critical, especially as the population of people living with HIV grows older.

Objectives

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if older individuals with HIV are less likely to be non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy than younger individuals with HIV.

Design

A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles evaluating adherence to ART in older adults. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and appraised study quality. The bibliographies of qualifying studies were searched. Data were abstracted from studies by two independent authors. Meta-analyses were conducted, and adherence levels were reported as the relative risk of non-adherence in older individuals compared to younger individuals.

Results

The systematic search yielded 1,848 abstracts. Twelve studies met full inclusion criteria. The overall meta-analysis found that older age reduced risk for non-adherence by 27 % (relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.64–0.82). Studies assessing both short-term and long-term adherence demonstrated a significant reduction in non-adherence among older patients (RR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.64–0.87 and RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.50–0.85, respectively).

Conclusions

Older adults with HIV have a reduced risk for non-adherence to ART than their younger counterparts. Future studies should seek to elucidate contributing factors of adherence among older individuals with HIV.

Supplementary material

40266_2013_107_MOESM1_ESM.doc (78 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 77 kb)
40266_2013_107_MOESM2_ESM.doc (60 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 60 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2013