Review Article


, Volume 74, Issue 14, pp 1587-1603

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Clinical Use of Rivaroxaban: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Rationale for Dosing Regimens in Different Indications

  • Toby TrujilloAffiliated withUniversity of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Email author 
  • , Paul P. DobeshAffiliated withCollege of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center


Target-specific oral anticoagulants have become increasingly available as alternatives to traditional agents for the management of a number of thromboembolic disorders. To date, the direct Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is the most widely approved of the new agents. The dosing of rivaroxaban varies and adheres to specific schedules in each of the clinical settings in which it has been investigated. These regimens were devised based on the results of phase II dose-finding studies and/or pharmacokinetic modeling, and were demonstrated to be successful in randomized, phase III studies. In most cases, the pharmacodynamic profile of rivaroxaban permits once-daily dosing. A once-daily dose is indicated for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery, the long-term prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and the long-term secondary prevention of recurrent VTE. Twice-daily dosing is required in the acute phase of treatment in patients with VTE and in the combination of rivaroxaban with standard single or dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome events. This article reviews the empirical and clinical rationale supporting the dose regimens of rivaroxaban in each clinical setting.