Rivaroxaban: A Review of Its Use in Acute Coronary Syndromes
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- Plosker, G.L. Drugs (2014) 74: 451. doi:10.1007/s40265-014-0188-6
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Rivaroxaban (Xarelto®) is an orally administered highly selective direct inhibitor of factor Xa that has been approved in many countries to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism. More recently, rivaroxaban at a low dosage of 2.5 mg twice daily, co-administered with aspirin alone or aspirin plus either clopidogrel or ticlopidine, was approved for use in the EU for patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The approval of rivaroxaban in ACS was primarily based on findings of the phase III ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial, which showed that after a median of 13.1 months of treatment with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (combined with aspirin or aspirin plus either clopidogrel or ticlopidine) there was a statistically significant reduction in the rate of the primary composite endpoint, which was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction or stroke, compared with placebo. Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily was also associated with a reduction in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. There was an increase in the risk of major bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily compared with placebo; however, there was no increase in the risk of fatal bleeding. Aspirin plus either ticagrelor or prasugrel was not evaluated as background dual antiplatelet therapy in ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 and the safety implications of rivaroxaban used in combination with such therapy are unknown. In conclusion, results of the ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial suggest a potentially important role for rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily co-administered with aspirin alone or aspirin plus either clopidogrel or ticlopidine in patients with a recent ACS.