UNAIDS. Report on the global AIDS epidemic, 2010. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization; 2010.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV incidence. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/incidence.htm
(Accessed 25 Oct 2012).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL). http://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/concept.htm
(Accessed 25 Jan 2013).
Grossman HA, Sullivan PS, Wu AW. Quality of life and HIV: current assessment tools and future directions for clinical practice. AIDS Read. 2003;13(12):583–90, 595–7.
Lin MK, Wu AW, Revicki DA. Incorporating quality of life measures in HIV clinical trials. HIV Clin Trials. 2002;3(3):202–18.PubMedCrossRef
Shumaker SA, Ellis S, Naughton M. Assessing health-related quality of life in HIV disease: key measurement issues. Qual Life Res. 1997;6(6):475–80.PubMedCrossRef
Garvie PA, et al. Quality of life measurement in paediatric and adolescent populations with HIV: a review of the literature. Child Care Health Dev. 2009;35(4):440–53.PubMedCrossRef
Tavakol M, Dennick R. Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. Int J Med Educ. 2011;2:53–5.CrossRef
Franchi D, Wenzel RP. Measuring health-related quality of life among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26(1):20–6.PubMedCrossRef
Li AWP. Dictionary of evidence base medicine. Oxon: Radcliffe Medical Press Ltd; 1998.
Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.; 1988.
Clayson DJ, et al. A comparative review of health-related quality-of-life measures for use in HIV/AIDS clinical trials. Pharmacoeconomics. 2006;24(8):751–65.PubMedCrossRef
Tsasis P. Health-related quality-of-life measurements in HIV/AIDS care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2000;14(8):427–38.PubMedCrossRef
de Boer JB, van Dam FS, Sprangers MA. Health-related quality-of-life evaluation in HIV-infected patients. A review of the literature. Pharmacoeconomics. 1995;8(4):291–304.PubMedCrossRef
Hays RD, Shapiro MF. An overview of generic health-related quality of life measures for HIV research. Qual Life Res. 1992;1(2):91–7.PubMedCrossRef
Robinson FP. Measurement of quality of life in HIV disease. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2004;15(5 Suppl):14S–9S.PubMedCrossRef
Stewart AL, Ware JE. Measuring functioning and well-being: the medical outcomes study approach. Durham: Duke University Press; 1992.
SF-36.org. The SF-8 Health Survey. http://www.sf-36.org/tools/sf8.shtml
(Accessed 25 Jan 2013).
Kaplan RM, Bush JW, Berry CC. The reliability, stability, and generalizability of a health status index from the Proceedings of the American Statistical Association. Washington, DC: American Statistical Association; 1978.
Hunt SM, et al. The Nottingham health profile: subjective health status and medical consultations. Soc Sci Med. 1981;15A:221–9.
Vanhems P, Toma E, Pineault R. Quality of life assessment and HIV infection: a review. Eur J Epidemiol. 1996;12(3):221–8.PubMedCrossRef
Bergner M, et al. The sickness impact profile: development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care. 1981;19(8):787–805.PubMedCrossRef
Rabin R, de Charro F. EQ5D: a measure of health status from the EuroQol Group. Ann Med. 2011;33(5):227–43.
Anis AH, et al. Quality of life of patients with advanced HIV/AIDS: measuring the impact of both AIDS-defining events and non-AIDS serious adverse events. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51(5):631–9.PubMedCrossRef
Torrance GW, et al. Multi-attribute preference function: Health Utilities Index. Pharmacoeconomics. 1995;7:490–502.PubMedCrossRef
Horsman J, Furlong W, Feeny D. The Health Utilities Index (HUI): concepts, measurement properties and applications. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003;1:54.PubMedCrossRef
Torrance GW, Thomas WH, Sackett DL. A utility maximization model for evaluation of health care programs. Health Serv Res. 1972;7:113–8.
von Neumann J, Morgenstein O. Theory of games and economic behavior. New York: Wiley; 1953.
Torrance GW. Social preferences for health states: an empirical evaluation of three measurements. Socio Econ Plan Sci. 1976;10:129–36.CrossRef
World Health Organization. WHOQoL Study Protocol. WHO (MNH7PSF/93.9); 1993. http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/research_tools/whoqolbref/en/
(Accessed 22 Feb 2013).
World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Group. Initial steps to developing the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL) module for international assessment in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care. 2003;15(3):347–57.CrossRef
Schag CA, et al. Assessing the needs and quality of life of patients with HIV infection: development of the HIV Overview of Problems-Evaluation System (HOPES). Qual Life Res. 1992;1(6):397–413.PubMedCrossRef
Lenderking WR, et al. Measuring quality of life in early HIV disease: the modular approach. Qual Life Res. 1997;6(6):515–30.PubMedCrossRef
Cleary PD, et al. Health-related quality of life in persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Med Care. 1993;31(7):569–80.PubMedCrossRef
Burgess A, et al. The reliability and validity of two HIV-specific health-related Quality-of-Life measures: a preliminary analysis. AIDS. 1993;7(7):1001–8.PubMedCrossRef
Jette AM, Davies AR, Cleary PD. The Functional Status Questionnaire: its reliability and validity when used in primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 1986;1:143–9.PubMedCrossRef
Statistic NCfH. National Health Interview Survey, 1986. Interviewer’s Manual, HIS. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 1986.
Winterling D, et al. A self-rating scale for assessing memory loss. Bethesda: Memory Assessment Clinics Inc; 1986.
Cella DF, et al. Development and validation of the Functional Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (FAHI) quality of life instrument. Qual Life Res. 1996;5(4):450–63.PubMedCrossRef
Holmes WC, Shea JA. Two approaches to measuring quality of life in HIV/AIDS population: HAT-QOL and MOS-HIV. Qual Life Res. 1999;8:515–27.PubMedCrossRef
Avis NE, Smith KW. Development of the MQOL-HIV: the Multidimensional Quality of Life questionnaire for persons with HIV/AIDS. Qual Life Newslett. 1997;17:3–4.
Bozzette SA, et al. Derivation and properties of a brief health status assessment instrument for use in HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995;8(3):253–65.PubMedCrossRef
Coplan PM, et al. Impact of indinavir on the quality of life in patients with advanced HIV infection treated with zidovudine and lamivudine. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(3):426–33.PubMedCrossRef
Wu AW, et al. Creating a crosswalk to estimate AIDS Clinical Trials Group quality of life scores in a nationally representative sample of persons in care for HIV in the United States. HIV Clin Trials. 2005;6(3):147–57.PubMedCrossRef
Wu AW, et al. Applications of the Medical Outcomes Study health-related quality of life measures in HIV/AIDS. Qual Life Res. 1997;6(6):531–54.PubMedCrossRef
Wu AW, et al. Evidence for reliability, validity and usefulness of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV). Qual Life Res. 1997;6(6):481–93.PubMedCrossRef
Wu AW, et al. A health status questionnaire using 30 items from the Medical Outcomes Study. Med Care. 1991;29:786–98.PubMedCrossRef
Justice AC, Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Unit Outcomes Committee, et al. Development and validation of a self-completed HIV symptom index. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001;54(suppl 1):S77–90.PubMedCrossRef
Sprinz E, et al. Substitution with lopinivir/ritonavir improves patient-reported outcomes including quality of life in patients who were intolerant to their antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2006;7(6):291–308.PubMedCrossRef
Crane HM, et al. Routine collection of patient-reported outcomes in an HIV clinic setting: the first 100 patients. Curr HIV Res. 2007;5(1):109–18.PubMedCrossRef
Crane HM, et al. A single-item measure of health-related quality of life for HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20(3):161–74.PubMedCrossRef
US Department of Health and Human Services. Guidance for industry patient reported outcome measures: use in medical product development to support labeling claims. US Dept of Health and Human Services, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER); 2009.
Duracinsky M, et al. The development of PROQOL-HIV: an international instrument to assess the health-related quality of life of persons living with HIV/AIDS. JAIDS. 2012;59:498–505.PubMedCrossRef
Spire B, et al. Simplification and first validation of a short battery of patient questionnaires for clinical management of HIV-infected patients: The HIV-SQUAD (Symptom Quality of life Adherence) Questionnaire. HIV Clin Trials. 2009;10(4):215–32.PubMedCrossRef
Bucciardini R, et al. ISSQoL: a new questionnaire for evaluating the quality of life of people living with HIV in the HAART era. Qual Life Res. 2006;15(3):377–90.PubMedCrossRef
Aversa S, Kimberlin C, Segal R. The Medication Attribution Scale: perceived effects of antiretrovirals and quality of life. Qual Life Res. 1998;7(3):205–14.PubMedCrossRef
Stewart A, Hayes RD, Ware JE. The MOS short-form general health survey: reliability and validity in a patient population. Med Care. 1998;26:724–35.CrossRef
Stewart AL, Greenfield S, Hayes RD. Functional status and well being of patients with chronic conditions. J Am Med Assoc. 1989;262:907–13.CrossRef
Copfer AE, et al. The use of two measures of health-related quality of life in HIV-infected individuals: a cross-sectional comparison. Qual Life Res. 1996;5(2):281–6.PubMedCrossRef
Hughes TE, et al. Construct validities of the Quality of Well-Being Scale and the MOS-HIV-34 Health Survey for HIV-infected patients. Med Decis Making. 1997;17(4):439–46.PubMedCrossRef
Williams JB, Rabkin JG. The concurrent validity of items in the Quality-of-Life Index in a cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men. Control Clin Trials. 1991;12(4 Suppl):129S–41S.PubMedCrossRef
Cella D, et al. Spanish language translation and initial validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy quality-of-life instrument. Med Care. 1998;36(9):1407–18.PubMedCrossRef
Delate T, Coons SJ. The use of 2 health-related quality-of-life measures in a sample of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(3):E47–52.PubMedCrossRef
Hsiung PC, et al. Comparison of WHOQOL-bREF and SF-36 in patients with HIV infection. Qual Life Res. 2005;14(1):141–50.PubMedCrossRef
Nosyk B, et al. The concurrent validity and responsiveness of the health utilities index (HUI 3) among patients with advanced HIV/AIDS. Qual Life Res. 2009;18(7):815–24.PubMedCrossRef
Joyce VR, et al. Health-related quality of life in a randomized trial of antiretroviral therapy for advanced HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(1):27–36.PubMedCrossRef
Carretero MD, et al. Reliability and validity of an HIV-specific health-related quality-of-life measure for use with injecting drug users. AIDS. 1996;10(14):1699–705.PubMedCrossRef
Henderson WA, et al. Validation of the MOS-HIV as a measure of health-related quality of life in persons living with HIV and liver disease. AIDS Care. 2010;22(4):483–90.PubMedCrossRef
Bolge SC, et al. The impact of anemia on quality of life and healthcare resource utilization in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23(4):803–10.PubMedCrossRef
Baum MK, et al. Quality of life, symptomatology and healthcare utilization in HIV/HCV co-infected drug users in Miami. J Addict Dis. 2008;27(2):37–48.PubMedCrossRef
Braitstein P, et al. Quality of life, depression and fatigue among persons co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C: outcomes from a population based-cohort. AIDS Care. 2005;17(4):505–15.PubMedCrossRef
Brongos Figuero LS, et al. Assessment of factors influencing health-related quality of life in HIV-infected patients. HIV Med. 2011;12(1):22–30.CrossRef
Briongos Figuero LS, et al. Depression and health related quality of life among HIV-infected people. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15(8):855–62.PubMed
Diamond C, Taylor TH, Anton-Culver H. Quality of life, characteristics and survival of patients with HIV and lymphoma. Qual Life Res. 2010;19(2):149–55.PubMedCrossRef
Drummond MB, et al. HIV and COPD: impact of risk behaviors and disease on quality of life. Qual Life Res. 2010;19(9):1295–302.PubMedCrossRef
Fleming CA, et al. Health-related quality of life of patients with HIV disease: impact of hepatitis C coinfection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(4):572–8.PubMedCrossRef
Badia X, et al. Evaluating changes in health status in HIV-infected patients: Medical Outcomes Study-HIV and Multidimensional Quality of Life-HIV quality of life questionnaires. Spanish MOS-HIV and MQOL-HIV Validation Group. AIDS. 2000;14(10):1439–47.PubMedCrossRef
Badia X, et al. A randomized study comparing instruments for measuring health-related quality of life in HIV-infected patients. Spanish MOS-HIV and MQOL-HIV Validation Group. Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. AIDS. 1999;13(13):1727–35.PubMedCrossRef
Paton NI, et al. Validation of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey as a measure of quality of life in HIV-infected patients in Singapore. Int J STD AIDS. 2002;13(7):456–61.PubMedCrossRef
Stasinopoulou PG, et al. Reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the MOS-HIV health survey in HIV-infected individuals. Qual Life Res. 2010;19(2):199–205.PubMedCrossRef
Arpinelli F, et al. Health-related quality of life in asymptomatic patients with HIV. Evaluation of the SF-36 health survey in Italian patients. Pharmacoeconomics. 2000;18(1):63–72.PubMedCrossRef
Canavarro MC, et al. Quality of life assessment in HIV-infection: validation of the European Portuguese version of WHOQOL-HIV. AIDS Care. 2011;23(2):187–94.PubMedCrossRef
Chang CH, et al. The SF-36 physical and mental health factors were confirmed in cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60(1):68–72.PubMedCrossRef
Davis EA, Pathak DS. Psychometric evaluation of four HIV disease-specific quality-of-life instruments. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35(5):546–52.PubMedCrossRef
Holmes WC, Ruocco JE. Test-retest evaluation of HAT-Qol and SF-36 in an HIV-seropositive sample. AIDS Care. 2008;20(9):1084–92.PubMedCrossRef
Holmes WC, Shea JA. Two approaches to measuring quality of life int he HIV/AIDS population: HAT-Qol and MOS-HIV. Qual Life Res. 1999;8(6):515–27.PubMedCrossRef
Stavem K, Froland SS, Hellum KB. Comparison of preference-based utilities of the 15D, EQ-5D and SF-6D in patients with HIV/AIDS. Qual Life Res. 2005;14(4):971–80.PubMedCrossRef
Bult JR, et al. Heterogeneity in the relationship between the time tradeoff and Short Form-36 for HIV-infected and primary care patients. Med Care. 1998;36(4):523–32.PubMedCrossRef
O’Leary JF, et al. Toward a better understanding of health-related quality of life: a comparison of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) and the HIV Overview of Problems-Evaluation System (HOPES). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;17(5):433–41.PubMedCrossRef
Wu AW, et al. Validity and responsiveness of the euroqol as a measure of health-related quality of life in people enrolled in an AIDS clinical trial. Qual Life Res. 2002;11(3):273–82.PubMedCrossRef
Call SA, et al. Health-related quality of life and virologic outcomes in an HIV clinic. Qual Life Res. 2000;9(9):977–85.PubMedCrossRef
Cederfjall C, et al. Gender differences in perceived health-related quality of life among patients with HIV infection. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2001;15(1):31–9.PubMedCrossRef
Cowdery JE, Pesa JA. Assessing quality of life in women living with HIV infection. AIDS Care. 2002;14(2):235–45.PubMedCrossRef
McDonnell KA, et al. Measuring health related quality of life among women living with HIV. Qual Life Res. 2000;9(8):931–40.PubMedCrossRef
Watanabe M, et al. A discriminative study of health-related quality of life assessment in HIV-1-infected persons living in Japan using the Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire for persons with HIV/AIDS. Int J STD AIDS. 2004;15(2):107–15.PubMedCrossRef
Lorenz KA, et al. Changes in symptoms and health-related quality of life in a nationally representative sample of adults in treatment for HIV. Qual Life Res. 2006;15(6):951–8.PubMedCrossRef
Lorenz KA, et al. Associations of symptoms and health-related quality of life: findings from a national study of persons with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(9 Pt 2):854–60.PubMedCrossRef
Lubeck DP, Fries JF. Changes in quality of life among persons with HIV infection. Qual Life Res. 1992;1(6):359–66.PubMedCrossRef
Bing EG, et al. Health-related quality of life among people with HIV disease: results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Qual Life Res. 2000;9(1):55–63.PubMedCrossRef
Hays RD, et al. Health-related quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the United States: results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. Am J Med. 2000;108(9):714–22.PubMedCrossRef
Miners AH, et al. Health-related quality of life in individuals infected with HIV in the era of HAART. HIV Clin Trials. 2001;2(6):484–92.PubMedCrossRef
Gill CJ, et al. Relationship of HIV viral loads, CD4 counts, and HAART use to health-related quality of life. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;30(5):485–92.PubMedCrossRef
Murri R, et al. Determinants of health-related quality of life in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Care. 2003;15(4):581–90.PubMedCrossRef
Weinfurt KP, et al. Relationship between CD4 count, viral burden, and quality of life over time in HIV-1-infected patients. Med Care. 2000;38(4):404–10.PubMedCrossRef
Mathews WC, May S. EuroQol (EQ-5D) measure of quality of life predicts mortality, emergency department utilization, and hospital discharge rates in HIV-infected adults under care. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007;5:5.PubMedCrossRef
Kudel I, et al. Patterns of responses on health-related quality of life questionnaires among patients with HIV/AIDS. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(Suppl 5):S48–55.PubMedCrossRef
Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents Panel Roster. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1 infected adults and adolescents; 2013. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/1/adult-and-adolescent-arv-guidelines
(Accessed 25 Feb 2013).
Low-Beer S, et al. Health related quality of life among persons with HIV after the use of protease inhibitors. Qual Life Res. 2000;9(8):941–9.PubMedCrossRef
Carrieri P, et al. Health-related quality of life after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;32(1):38–47.PubMedCrossRef
Nieuwkerk PT, et al. Quality of life in asymptomatic- and symptomatic HIV infected patients in a trial of ritonavir/saquinavir therapy. The Prometheus Study Group. AIDS. 2000;14(2):181–7.PubMedCrossRef
Tramarin A, et al. A multicentre study of patient survival, disability, quality of life and cost of care: among patients with AIDS in northern Italy. Pharmacoeconomics. 2004;22(1):43–53.PubMedCrossRef
Protopopescu C, et al. Health-related quality of life in HIV-1-infected patients on HAART: a five-years longitudinal analysis accounting for dropout in the APROCO-COPILOTE cohort (ANRS CO-8). Qual Life Res. 2007;16(4):577–91.PubMedCrossRef
Brechtl JR, et al. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with advanced HIV infection: impact on medical, palliative care, and quality of life outcomes. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2001;21(1):41–51.PubMedCrossRef
Wu AW, et al. Quality of life in a placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3(7):683–90.PubMed
Fischl MA, et al. The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 1987;317(4):185–91.PubMedCrossRef
Gelber RD, et al. Quality-of-life evaluation in a clinical trial of zidovudine therapy in patients with mildly symptomatic HIV infection. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(12 Pt 1):961–6.PubMedCrossRef
Wu AW, Rubin HR, Mathews WG, Brysk LM et al. Functional Status and well-being in a placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine in early symptomatic HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993;6(5):452–8.
Lenderking WR, Gelber RD, Cotton DJ et al. Evaluation of the quality of life associated with zidovudine treatment in asymptomatic virus infection. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(11):738–43.
Bozzette SA, Kanouse DE et al. The impact of zidovudine compared with didanosine on health status and functioning in persons with HIV infection and a varying duration of prior zidovudine therapy. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 116/117 Study Group. Antivir Ther. 1996; 1(1):21–32.
Shafer RW, et al. Comparison of four-drug regimens and pairs of sequential three-drug regimens as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(24):2304–15.PubMedCrossRef
Yeni P, et al. Virological and immunological outcomes at 3 years after starting antiretroviral therapy with regimens containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, protease inhibitor, or both in INITIO: open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2006;368(9532):287–98.PubMedCrossRef
Bucciardini R, et al. Health-related quality of life outcomes in HIV-infected patients starting different combination regimens in a randomized multinational trial: the INITIO-QoL substudy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23(10):1215–22.PubMedCrossRef
Hammer SM, et al. A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(11):725–33.PubMedCrossRef
Mukherjee J, Wu Y, Odeshoo L, Kelleher T, Uche Iloeje MAC, Giordano M. Atazanavir maintained patient utility and improved quality of life. Comparing favorably to LPV/RTV: 24-week data from BMS 043. 9th European AIDS conference, Warsaw; 2003.
Malan DR, et al. 96-week efficacy and safety of atazanavir, with and without ritonavir, in a HAART regimen in treatment-naive patients. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2010;9(1):34–42.CrossRef
Malan N, et al. Gastrointestinal tolerability and quality of life in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: data from the CASTLE study. AIDS Care. 2010;22(6):677–86.PubMedCrossRef
Huang IC, et al. Health-related quality of life and tolerability in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients on tipranavir versus comparator regimens. Antivir Ther. 2008;13(1):15–25.PubMed
Dubois D, Smets E, Vangeneugden T, Van Baelen B, Viala M, Bhakar AL and Lefebvre E. Improved quality of life in treatment-experienced HIV patients treated with TMC114/r versus control protease inhibitors: results of POWER 1 and 2 functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI). 16th International AIDS conference, Toronto; 2006.
Fumaz CR, et al. Quality of life, emotional status, and adherence of HIV-1-infected patients treated with efavirenz versus protease inhibitor-containing regimens. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;29(3):244–53.PubMed
Campo RE, et al. Switch from protease inhibitor- to efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy improves quality of life, treatment satisfaction and adherence with low rates of virological failure in virologically suppressed patients. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21(3):166–71.PubMedCrossRef
Potard V, et al. Better health-related quality of life after switching from a virologically effective regimen to a regimen containing efavirenz or nevirapine. AIDS Care. 2010;22(1):54–61.PubMedCrossRef
van Leth F, et al. Quality of life in patients treated with first-line antiretroviral therapy containing nevirapine and/or efavirenz. Antivir Ther. 2004;9(5):721–8.PubMed
Cooper V, et al. Beliefs about antiretroviral therapy, treatment adherence and quality of life in a 48-week randomised study of continuation of zidovudine/lamivudine or switch to tenofovir DF/emtricitabine, each with efavirenz. AIDS Care. 2011;23(6):705–13.PubMedCrossRef
Jayaweera D, et al. Virologic suppression, treatment adherence, and improved quality of life on a once-daily efavirenz-based regimen in treatment-Naive HIV-1-infected patients over 96 weeks. HIV Clin Trials. 2009;10(6):375–84.PubMedCrossRef
Hodder SL, et al. Patient-reported outcomes in virologically suppressed, HIV-1-Infected subjects after switching to a simplified, single-tablet regimen of efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir DF. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010;24(2):87–96.PubMedCrossRef
Airoldi M, et al. One-pill once-a-day HAART: a simplification strategy that improves adherence and quality of life of HIV-infected subjects. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2010;4:115–25.PubMed
Cella D, et al. Effects of etravirine versus placebo on health-related quality of life in treatment-experienced HIV patients as measured by the functional assessment of human immunodeficiency virus infection (FAHI) questionnaire in the DUET trials. HIV Clin Trials. 2010;11(1):18–27.PubMedCrossRef
Lalezari JP, et al. Enfuvirtide, an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, for drug-resistant HIV infection in North and South America. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(22):2175–85.PubMedCrossRef
Lazzarin A, et al. Efficacy of enfuvirtide in patients infected with drug-resistant HIV-1 in Europe and Australia. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(22):2186–95.PubMedCrossRef
Cohen CJ, et al. Health-related quality of life with enfuvirtide (ENF; T-20) in combination with an optimized background regimen. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37(1):1140–6.PubMedCrossRef
Bucciardini R, et al. T20QoL: an observational multicenter cohort study to evaluate the quality of life in HIV-patients treated with enfuvirtide (ENF, T-20) in combination with an optimized background therapy. Biologics. 2008;2(3):577–81.PubMed
Boulet T, et al. Impact on health-related quality of life of a switch from enfuvirtide to raltegravir among multidrug-resistant HIV-1-infected patients: a randomized open-label trial (EASIER-ANRS 138). HIV Clin Trials. 2010;11(5):283–93.PubMedCrossRef
Grant PM, et al. Switch from enfuvirtide to raltegravir in virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected patients: effects on level of residual viremia and quality of life. J Clin Virol. 2009;46(4):305–8.PubMedCrossRef
Sayana S, et al. Analysis of a switch from enfuvirtide to raltegravir in patients with undetectable viral load: efficacy and quality of life at 24 weeks. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2009;8(2):85–6.CrossRef
McDonald C, et al. Clinical significance of hyperbilirubinemia among HIV-1-infected patients treated with atazanavir/ritonavir through 96 weeks in the CASTLE study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012;26(5):259–64.PubMedCrossRef
Corless IB, et al. Lipodystrophy-associated symptoms and medication adherence in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19(9):577–86.PubMedCrossRef
Guaraldi G, et al. Severity of lipodystrophy is associated with decreased health-related quality of life. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22(7):577–85.PubMedCrossRef
Guaraldi G, et al. Lipodystrophy and quality of life of HIV-infected persons. AIDS Rev. 2008;10(3):152–61.PubMed
Guaraldi G, et al. Quality of life and body image in the assessment of psychological impact of lipodystrophy: validation of the Italian version of assessment of body change and distress questionnaire. Qual Life Res. 2006;15(1):173–8.PubMedCrossRef
Nicholas PK, et al. Lipodystrophy and quality of life in HIV: symptom management issues. Appl Nurs Res. 2005;18(1):55–8.PubMedCrossRef
Blanch J, et al. Impact of lipodystrophy on the quality of life of HIV-1 infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;31:404–7.PubMedCrossRef
Burgoyne R, et al. The relationship between lipodystrophy-associated body changes and measures of quality of life and mental health for HIV-positive adults. Qual Life Res. 2005;14(4):981–90.PubMedCrossRef
Rajagopalan R, Laitinen D, Dietz B. Impact of lipoatrophy on quality of life in HIV patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. AIDS Care. 2008;20(10):1197–201.PubMedCrossRef
Steel JL, et al. Effects of lipodystrophy on quality of life and depression in HIV-infected men on HAART. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20(8):565–75.PubMedCrossRef
Antoniou T, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of polyalkylimide gel for the treatment of HIV-associated lipoatrophy. AIDS Care. 2009;21(10):1247–52.PubMedCrossRef
Bechara FG, et al. Hyaluronic acid new formulation: experience in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy. Dermatology. 2008;217(3):244–9.PubMedCrossRef
Carey D, et al. Poly-l-lactic acid for HIV-1 facial lipoatrophy: 48-week follow-up. HIV Med. 2009;10(3):163–72.PubMedCrossRef
Carey DL, et al. A randomized, multi-center, open-label study of poly-L-lactic acid for HIV-1 facial lipoatrophy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46(5):581–9.PubMedCrossRef
De Santis G, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel injection in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy: a 5-year follow-up. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129(1):101–9.PubMedCrossRef
Karim RB, et al. Long-term effect of polyalkylimide gel injections on severity of facial lipoatrophy and quality of life of HIV-positive patients. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32(6):873–8.PubMedCrossRef
Loutfy MR, et al. Four-year follow-up of polyalkylimide gel use for the treatment of HIV-associated lipoatrophy. HIV Clin Trials. 2011;12(6):323–32.PubMedCrossRef
Loutfy MR, et al. Immediate versus delayed polyalkylimide gel injections to correct facial lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients. AIDS. 2007;21(9):1147–55.PubMedCrossRef
Mole B, et al. Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection in the management of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy: results of the LIPOPHILL open-label study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28(3):251–8.PubMedCrossRef
Narciso P, et al. Immediate versus delayed surgical intervention for reconstructive therapy of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy: a randomized open-label study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25(10):979–87.PubMedCrossRef
Negredo E, et al. Reconstructive treatment for antiretroviral-associated facial lipoatrophy: a prospective study comparing autologous fat and synthetic substances. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20(12):829–37.PubMedCrossRef
Rauso R, et al. Polyacrylamide gel injection for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated facial lipoatrophy: 18 months follow-up. Dermatol Surg. 2011;37(11):1584–9.PubMedCrossRef
Warde M, et al. The impact of facial lipoatrophy treatment with polymethyl methacrylate in AIDS patients as measured by four quality-of-life questionnaires. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22(10):596–9.PubMedCrossRef
Tramarin A, et al. Association between diarrhea and quality of life in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Qual Life Res. 2004;13(1):243–50.PubMedCrossRef
Siddiqui U, et al. Prevalence and impact of diarrhea on health-related quality of life in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41(5):484–90.PubMedCrossRef