, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 99-112
Date: 24 Mar 2013

Using Cytogenetic Rearrangements for Cancer Prognosis and Treatment (Pharmacogenetics)

Abstract

Chromosomal rearrangements including translocations, deletions, inversions, and insertions are common genetic alterations in cancer. Over 1,000 recurrent chromosome rearrangements have been reported so far in different human tumors (http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes/Mitelman). Most of these chromosome rearrangements are associated with specific tumor types and bear distinctive diagnostic and prognostic significance. Molecular characterization of these rearrangements has revealed numerous cancer genes, including novel fusion genes, and their normal and aberrant interactions involved in tumorigenesis, and has identified myriad therapeutic targets. With the help of advanced high-throughput technologies, many cryptic chromosome rearrangements undetectable by conventional cytogenetics have recently been discovered and delineated. The understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the formation of recurrent chromosome rearrangements and their biological functions has led to novel treatment regimens that target tumor cells specifically, with minimal impact to normal cells. Here, we review common recurrent chromosome rearrangements in both hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors, and their clinical significance, with a focus on acquired fusion genes and their therapeutic implications (i.e., pharmacogenetics).