Advances in Monitoring for Anesthesia (TM Hemmerling, Section Editor)

Current Anesthesiology Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 261-273

Transesophageal Monitoring in Anaesthesia: An Update

  • Mahesh R. PrabhuAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Freeman Hospital Email author 
  • , Anthony GeorgeAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Freeman Hospital


Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is increasingly used for diagnosis and monitoring in a number of clinical areas for assessment of cardiac structure and function. The use of TEE is well established in cardiac surgery but in non-cardiac surgery, TEE is recommended in preexistent cardiovascular disease causing hemodynamic compromise or in the presence of refractory hemodynamic instability or hypoxemia. Real-time 3-dimensional TEE provides exceptional images and unique views which have been pivotal in the success of minimally invasive surgery and transcatheter interventions. Although TEE is a relatively safe procedure, guidelines for standardized training, techniques and research protocols are recommended by most august bodies. The use of simulation-based learning has aided training by providing structured training opportunities and sufficient training time. TEE is a semi-invasive, portable, safe and readily available imaging modality that is likely to see an upsurge due to innovations in technology, miniaturization and an increase in minimally invasive procedures.


Transesophageal Trends Cardiac surgery Thoracic surgery 3-dimensional TEE Interventional/methods Perioperative period