, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 261-273
Date: 30 Jul 2014

Transesophageal Monitoring in Anaesthesia: An Update

Abstract

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is increasingly used for diagnosis and monitoring in a number of clinical areas for assessment of cardiac structure and function. The use of TEE is well established in cardiac surgery but in non-cardiac surgery, TEE is recommended in preexistent cardiovascular disease causing hemodynamic compromise or in the presence of refractory hemodynamic instability or hypoxemia. Real-time 3-dimensional TEE provides exceptional images and unique views which have been pivotal in the success of minimally invasive surgery and transcatheter interventions. Although TEE is a relatively safe procedure, guidelines for standardized training, techniques and research protocols are recommended by most august bodies. The use of simulation-based learning has aided training by providing structured training opportunities and sufficient training time. TEE is a semi-invasive, portable, safe and readily available imaging modality that is likely to see an upsurge due to innovations in technology, miniaturization and an increase in minimally invasive procedures.