, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 19-28
Date: 02 Feb 2013

Inflammation and Gliomagenesis: Bi-Directional Communication at Early and Late Stages of Tumor Progression


Inflammation has been closely linked to various forms of cancer. Less is known about the role of inflammation in glioma, especially at the initiation stage. In this review, we first describe the unique features of the immune system in the brain. We then discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms by which glioma cells modulate the immune system, especially how bi-directional communications between immune cells and glioma cells create an immunosuppressed microenvironment that promotes tumor survival and growth. We also address the potential tumor-initiating roles of inflammation in glioma. Finally, we describe several immunotherapy approaches currently being developed to reverse these interactions and stimulate the immune system to eliminate glioma cells.