Advances in Thyroid Surgery (RP Tufano, Section Editor)

Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 35-43

First online:

Molecular Markers: From Diagnosis to Prognosis in 2013

  • Gilberto Vaz TeixeiraAffiliated withDepartment of Oncologic Surgery, Center of Oncologic Research (CEPON) Email author 
  • , Claudio Roberto CerneaAffiliated withHead and Neck Surgery Department, University of São Paulo Medical School


The detection of molecular alterations in the signaling pathways in thyroid carcinogenesis relates to some diagnostic, prognostic and treatment issues. The addition of the molecular profile to a well-differentiated thyroid cancer approach improves the accuracy of cancer detection, the prognostication and the selection of therapeutic targets for a more personalized management. It is expected that in the next few years, guidelines for thyroid cancer treatment will require a molecular marker panel to define the best treatment for this disease. BRAF and RAS mutations and RET/papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements, associated with the abnormal regulation of microRNA, constitute the most frequent molecular alterations identified in PTC. The clinical implications of the expression of these altered genes and molecules and the usefulness of these data for tailoring the approach to the disease and patient are the focus of this review.


Thyroid cancer Molecular markers BRAF RET/PTC PAX8/PPARγ Diagnosis Prognosis Papillary thyroid cancer