Therapies in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (R. Apte, Section Editor)

Current Ophthalmology Reports

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 12-19

First online:

Treatment Paradigms in Neovascular AMD

  • Miriam EnglanderAffiliated withCole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation
  • , Rishi P. SinghAffiliated withCole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation Email author 


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects more than 7 million individuals in the USA, making it the most common cause of visual impairment among adults over 60 years of age. Although the precise mechanisms responsible for the development of AMD are not fully understood, it is well established that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in the development and growth of the choroidal neovascular membrane. Anti-VEGF treatment has become the corner stone of management of this condition. In this article we discuss the current evidence for the various treatment paradigms presently in practical use, including the frequency of anti-VEGF injections as well as the use of combination treatments.


Neovascular AMD Anti-VEGF Treatment paradigms Combination treatment Triple therapy PEDF inhibitors Radiation