Invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected adults in France from 2000 to 2011: antimicrobial susceptibility and implication of serotypes for vaccination
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- Munier, AL., de Lastours, V., Varon, E. et al. Infection (2013) 41: 663. doi:10.1007/s15010-013-0419-x
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Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) remain frequent and severe events in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects despite the use of antiretroviral therapy and the availability of vaccines. Our aim was to assess the antibiotic susceptibilities and serotypes of strains responsible for IPD in HIV-infected patients.
We retrospectively analyzed all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from normally sterile sites between 2000 and 2011 in HIV-infected patients from a single reference center in Paris. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by the E-test, and serotyping was performed by the antiserum agglutination method.
Among our study group, 41 HIV-infected adults presented 43 IPD during the study period. Of these 41 patients, 78 % were men, and the median age was 43 (range 23–62) years. the median CD4 cell count was 184/mm3 (6–1,090/mm3), 51 % were receiving antiretroviral therapy, and 24 % had plasma HIV-RNA levels of <400 copies/mL. Only two patients had received the pneumococcal polysaccharide 23-valent vaccine (PPV23). Isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, and cotrimoxazole in 44, 70, and 59 % of cases, respectively, and were significantly less susceptible to these antibiotics than isolates in the French general population during the same period. Among the 27 strains serotyped, 18 different serotypes were observed, of which 19A, 14, 7F, and 6A were the most frequent. Serotype distribution was similar to that in the French general population. The PPV23 vaccine and the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) would have theoretically covered 78 and 70 % of cases, respectively.
In our HIV-infected patient cohort, S. pneumoniae isolates demonstrated higher levels of resistance to beta-lactamines and cotrimoxazole than in the French general population. HIV-infected patients should benefit from the herd protection effect expected from the large-scale vaccination of children by PCV13.