Infection

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 117–123

Recent Diarrhea is Associated with Elevated Salivary IgG Responses to Cryptosporidium in Residents of an Eastern Massachusetts Community

Authors

    • National Center for Environmental AssessmentUS Environmental Protection Agency
    • Dept. of Public Health and Community MedicineTufts University School of Medicine
  • L. M. Montuori Trimble
    • Dept. of Public Health and Community MedicineTufts University School of Medicine
  • L. Ascolillo
    • Dept. of Public Health and Community MedicineTufts University School of Medicine
  • H. D. Ward
    • Dept. of Public Health and Community MedicineTufts University School of Medicine
    • Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious DiseasesDept. of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center
  • D. A. Levy
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • R. D. Morris
    • Dept. of Public Health and Community MedicineTufts University School of Medicine
  • E. N. Naumova
    • Dept. of Public Health and Community MedicineTufts University School of Medicine
  • J. K. Griffiths
    • Dept. of Public Health and Community MedicineTufts University School of Medicine
    • Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious DiseasesDept. of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center
    • Friedman School of Nutrition Science and PolicyTufts University
    • Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of EngineeringTufts University
    • Cummings School of Veterinary MedicineTufts University
Clinical and Epidemiological Study

DOI: 10.1007/s15010-009-9323-4

Cite this article as:
Egorov, A.I., Montuori Trimble, L.M., Ascolillo, L. et al. Infection (2010) 38: 117. doi:10.1007/s15010-009-9323-4

Abstract

Background:

Serological data suggest that Cryptosporidium infections are common but underreported. The invasiveness of blood sampling limits the application of serology in epidemiological surveillance. We pilot-tested a non-invasive salivary anti-Cryptosporidium antibody assay in a community survey involving children and adults.

Materials and Methods:

Families with children were recruited in a Massachusetts community in July; symptoms data were collected at 3 monthly follow-up mail surveys. One saliva sample per person (n = 349) was collected via mail, with the last survey in October. Samples were analyzed for IgG and IgA responses to a recombinant C. hominis gp15 sporozoite protein using a time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay. Log-transformed assay results were regressed on age using penalized B-splines to account for the strong age-dependence of antibody reactions. Positive responses were defined as fluorescence values above the upper 99% prediction limit.

Results:

Forty-seven (13.5%) individuals had diarrhea without concurrent respiratory symptoms during the 3-month-long follow-up; eight of them had these symptoms during the month prior to saliva sampling. Two individuals had positive IgG responses: an adult who had diarrhea during the prior month and a child who had episodes of diarrhea during each survey month (Fisher’s exact test for an association between diarrhea and IgG response: p = 0.0005 for symptoms during the prior month and p = 0.02 for symptoms during the entire follow-up period). The child also had a positive IgA response, along with two asymptomatic individuals (an association between diarrhea and IgA was not significant).

Conclusion:

These results suggest that the salivary IgG specific to Cryptosporidium antigens warrants further evaluation as a potential indicator of recent infections.

Copyright information

© Urban & Vogel München 2010