, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 64-72
Date: 17 Feb 2012

Dietary Pattern, Lifestyle Factors, and Cardiovascular Diseases


Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered the most effective strategy for controlling CVD and its consequences. Modification of risk factors is an effective way to reduce CVD risk, and most risk factors can be altered with lifestyle changes and medications. Prospective studies have demonstrated that individually modified lifestyle factors (including physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and dietary factors) are associated with lower risks of coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), and stroke, but the results are inconsistent. The association between diet and the risk of CVD is varying. Furthermore, there are not enough studies to demonstrate the joint effects of multiple modifiable lifestyle factors on the risks of CHD, HF, and stroke. This review focuses on the dietary pattern, other lifestyle factors, and the joint associations of multiple modifiable lifestyle factors with the risks of CHD, HF, and stroke and has found that healthy lifestyle factors, including healthy diet, were significantly associated with decreased risks of CHD, HF, and stroke in men and women, and the risks progressively decreased as the number of healthy lifestyle factors increased. These results also suggest that in the general population, most cases of CHD, HF, and stroke could be avoided by practicing a healthy lifestyle.