, Volume 91, Issue 3, pp 283-308
Date: 16 Feb 2011

Viability of probiotic microorganisms in cheese during production and storage: a review

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Abstract

Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine due to its specific chemical and physical characteristics compared to fermented milks (higher pH value and lower titrable acidity, higher buffering capacity, greater fat content, higher nutrient availability, lower oxygen content, and denser matrix of the texture). In addition, a large variety of cheese types all over the world, consumption of cheese by everybody in their long-term diet, as well as the nutritional value of cheese have resulted in regular market growth for probiotic cheeses. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 106 cfu g−1) until the time of consumption, without adversely altering sensory attributes. Therefore, incorporation of probiotic cells into different cheese matrices and studying the influences of different compositional and process factors affecting the viability of probiotics in this product as well as its sensory properties have been the subject of numerous studies. Factor influencing the stability of probiotics in cheese can be categorized into three areas including formulation factors (strains of probiotic bacteria and microbial interactions, pH and titrable acidity, hydrogen peroxide, molecular oxygen, growth promoters and food additives, salt, microencapsulation, and ripening factors), process factors (incubation temperature, heat treatment, types of inoculation, and storage temperature), and packaging materials and systems. This article reviews the viability of probiotic organisms in cheese as well as the main factors influencing their stability during processing and storage.

摘要

与其他的发酵乳制品相比, 干酪具有其独特的物理化学特性 (高pH值、较低的滴定酸度、较高的缓冲能力、较高的脂肪含量、高营养利用率、较低的氧气浓度以及浓厚的质地), 因此干酪是一种理想的将益生微生物带进人体的载体。世界上有千余种干酪, 人类消费干酪具有悠久的历史。由于干酪的高营养价值, 使具有益生功能干酪的市场需求量逐年增加。基于益生菌对人体健康的重要性, 要求食品中益生菌的活菌数在整个货架期内必须达到一定的数值(如106 cfu.g-1), 而且产品的感官特性不能发生改变。因此, 国内外关于不同干酪底物中益生菌细胞总数对干酪营养成分以及干酪感官特性影响的报道非常多。影响干酪中益生菌稳定性的因素分概括为三个方面, 包括组成因素 (益生菌菌株和微生物之间的相互作用、pH和可滴定酸度、过氧化氢、分子态氧、生长促进剂和食品添加剂、盐、微胶囊和成熟因素) 、加工条件 (培养温度、热处理、接种形式和贮藏温度) 以及包装材料和包装方式。本文概述了干酪中益生微生物的生存能力以及在加工和贮藏期间影响益生微生物稳定性的因素。