Toxic response of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Nanoparticles are readily used in cosmetics, concrete and car bumpers; however data on safety of nanoparticles are limited. Abundant resources on environmental toxicology databases are available in many internet websites and these websites contain database on human health and nano-safety. Despite ZnO nanoparticles are widely used, very little data on toxic effects are available. In this study, we examined the toxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles on human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells after exposure at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL for 24 h. ZnO nanoparticles were assessed by monitoring cytotoxic function of mitochondria by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay), membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that ZnO nanoparticles reduced the mitochondrial function and induced the leakage of LDH. In addition ZnO nanoparticles induced oxidative stress, where induction of ROS and LPO were observed. Above results demonstrated the significant cytotoxicity in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells of ZnO nanoparticles, which could be mediated through ROS generation and oxidative stress.
- Yousaf, A. S. & Ali, S. Why Nanoscience and nanotechnology? What is there for us? J. of Faculty of Eng. & Technol. 5, 11–20 (2008).
- Burnett, M. E. & Wang, S. Q. Current sunscreen controversies: a critical review. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 27, 58–67 (2011). CrossRef
- Nohynek, G. J., Dufour, E. K. & Roberts. M. S. Nanotechnology, cosmetics and the skin: is there a health risk? Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 21, 136–149 (2008). CrossRef
- Nohynek, G. J. et al. Grey goo on the skin? Nanotechnology, cosmetic and sunscreen safety. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37, 251–277 (2007). CrossRef
- Brian, G. et al. Small amounts of zinc from zinc oxide particles in sunscreens applied outdoors are absorbed through human skin. Toxicol. Sciences 118, 140–149 (2010).
- Yang, H., Liu, C., Yang, D., Zhang, H. & Xi, Z. Comparative study of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by four typical nanomaterials: the role of particle size, shape and composition. J. Appl. Toxicol. 29, 69–78 (2009). CrossRef
- Huang, Z. et al. Toxicological effect of ZnO nanoparticles based on bacteria. Langmuir 24, 4140–4144 (2008).
- Franklin, N. M. et al. Comparative toxicity of nanoparticulate ZnO, bulk ZnO, and ZnCl2 to a freshwater microalga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata): the importance of particle solubility. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 8484–8490 (2007). CrossRef
- Zhu, X. et al. Comparative toxicity of several metal oxide nanoparticle aqueous suspensions to Zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stage. J. Environ. Sci. Health A Toxicol. 43, 278–284 (2008).
- Barbara, D. B. et al. Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induces oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma cells. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 246, 116–127 (2010). CrossRef
- Xiaoyong, D. et al. Nanosized zinc oxide particles induce neural stem cell apoptosis. Nanotechnology 20, 111–118 (2009).
- Maqusood, A. et al. ZnO nanorod-induced apoptosis in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells via p53, survivin and bax/bcl-2 pathways: role of oxidative stress. Nanomedicine 7, 904–917 (2011). CrossRef
- Wang, F. et al. Oxidative stress contributes to silica nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney cells. Toxicol. In Vitro 23, 808–815 (2009). CrossRef
- Akhtar, M. J. et al. The primary role of iron-mediated lipid peroxidation in the differential cytotoxicity caused by two varieties of talc nanoparticles on A549 cells and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect exerted by ascorbic acid. Toxicol. In Vitro 24, 1139–1147 (2010). CrossRef
- Yu, L. P., Fang, T., Xiong, D. W., Zhu, W. T. & Sima, X. F. Comparative toxicity of nano-ZnO and bulk ZnO suspensions to zebrafish and the effects of sedimentation, ·OH production and particle dissolution in distilled water. Epub. 13, 1975–1982 (2011).
- Peter, B. et al. Optimized dispersion of nanoparticles for biological in vitro and in vivo studies. Particle and Fibre Toxicol. 5, 111–114 (2008).
- Ludwig, K. et al. Oxide nanoparticle uptake in human lung fibroblasts: Effects of particles size, agglomeration, and diffusion at low concentrations. Environ. Sci. 39, 9370–9376 (2005). CrossRef
- Saito, H., Koyasu, J., Shigeoka, T. & Tomita, I. Cytotoxicity of chlorophenols to goldfish GFS cells with the MTT and LDH assays. Toxicol. In Vitro 8, 1107–1112 (1994). CrossRef
- Ozben, T. Oxidative stress and apoptosis. J. Pharm. Sci. 96, 2181–2196 (2007). CrossRef
- Xia, T. et al. Comparison of the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles based on dissolution and oxidative stress properties. ACS Nano 2, 2121–2134 (2008). CrossRef
- Akhtar, M. J. et al. Nanotoxicity of pure silica mediated through oxidant generation rather than glutathione depletion in human lung epithelial cells. Toxicology 276, 95–102 (2010). CrossRef
- Berardis, B. D. et al. Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induces oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma cells. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 246, 116–127 (2010). CrossRef
- Toxic response of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 1 , pp 14-18
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Korean Society of Environmental Risk Assessment and Health Science
- Additional Links
- Zinc oxide nanoparticle
- Reactive oxygen species
- Oxidative stress