Aisenbrey, S., Evertsson, M., & Grunow, D. (2009). Is there a career penalty for mothers’ time out? A comparison of Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Social Forces, 88,
Allison, P. D. (2005). Fixed effects regression methods for longitudinal data using SAS. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Amato, P. R., Booth, A., Johnson, D., & Rogers, S. (2007). Alone together: How marriage in America is changing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, D. J., Binder, M., & Krause, K. (2003). The motherhood wage penalty revisited: Experience, heterogeneity, work effort and work schedule flexibility. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 56,
Avellar, S., & Smock, P. (2003). Has the price of motherhood declined over time? A cross-cohort comparison of the motherhood wage penalty. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65,
Becker, G. (1985). Human capital, effort, and the sexual division of labor. Journal of Labor Economics, 3
(Part 2), S33–S58.CrossRef
Becker, G. (1991). A treatise on the family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brewster, K. L., & Rindfuss, R. R. (2000). Fertility and women’s employment in industrialized countries. Annual Review of Sociology, 26,
Browne, I., & Kennelly, I. (1999). Stereotypes and realities: Images of black women in the labor market. In I. Browne (Ed.), Latinas and African American women at work: Race, gender, and economic inequality (pp. 302–326). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Buchmann, M. (1989). The script of life in modern society: Entry into adulthood in a changing world. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Budig, M. J. (2003). Are women’s employment and fertility histories interdependent? An examination of causal order using event history analysis. Social Science Research, 32,
Budig, M. J., & England, P. (2001). The wage penalty for motherhood. American Sociological Review, 66,
Bumpass, L., & Lu, H.-H. (2000). Trends in cohabitation and implications for children’s family contexts in the United States. Population Studies, 54,
Correll, S. J., Benard, S., & Paik, I. (2007). Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty? American Journal of Sociology, 112,
Felmlee, D. H. (1995). Causes and consequences of women’s employment discontinuity, 1967–1973. Work and Occupations, 22,
Finch, M. D., Shanahan, M. J., Mortimer, J. T., & Ryu, S. (1991). Work experience and control orientation in adolescence. American Sociological Review, 56,
Gangl, M., & Ziefle, A. (2009). Motherhood, labor force behavior, and women’s careers: An empirical assessment of the wage penalty for motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States. Demography, 46,
Glauber, R. (2007). Marriage and the motherhood wage penalty among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69,
Hakim, C. (2002). Lifestyle preferences as determinants of women’s differentiated labor market careers. Work and Occupations, 29,
Halaby, C. N. (2003). Panel models for the analysis of change and growth in life course studies. In J. T. Mortimer & M. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course
(pp. 503–528). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRef
Hofferth, S. L., & Curtin, S. C. (2006). Parental leave statutes and maternal return to work after childbirth in the United States. Work and Occupations, 33,
Hutchison, R., & McNall, M. (1994). Early marriage in a Hmong cohort. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56,
Jacobsen, J. P., & Levin, L. M. (1995). Effects of intermittent labor force attachment on women’s earnings. Monthly Labor Review, 118, 14–19.
Joesch, J. M. (1994). Children and the timing of women’s paid work after childbirth: A further specification of the relationship. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56,
Johnson, M. K. (2005). Family roles and work values: Processes of selection and change with age. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67,
Kalleberg, A. L., Reskin, B. F., & Hudson, K. (2000). Bad jobs in America: Standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States. American Sociological Review, 65,
Kerckhoff, A. C. (2002). The transition from school to work. In J. T. Mortimer & R. Larson (Eds.), The changing adolescent experience: Societal trends and the transition to adulthood
(pp. 52–87). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Klerman, J. A., & Leibowitz, A. (1999). Job continuity among new mothers. Demography, 36,
Knapp, L. G., Kelly-Reid, J. E., & Ginder, S. A. (2010). Enrollment in postsecondary institutions, fall 2008; graduation rates, 2002 and 2005 cohorts; and financial statistics, fiscal year 2008 (NCES 2010–152). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Korenman, S., & Neumark, D. (1992). Marriage, motherhood, and wages. Journal of Human Resources, 27,
Light, A. (2001). In-school work experience and the returns to schooling. Journal of Labor Economics, 19,
Lundberg, S., & Rose, E. (2000). Parenthood and the earnings of married men and women. Labour Economics, 7,
McNall, M., Dunnigan, T., & Mortimer, J. T. (1994). The educational achievement of the St. Paul Hmong. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 25, 1–22.
Mincer, J., & Polachek, S. (1974). Family investments in human capital: Earnings of women. Journal of Political Economy, 82,
Mortimer, J. T. (2003). Working and growing up in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mortimer, J. T., Vuolo, M., Staff, J., Wakefield, S., & Xie, W. (2008). Tracing the timing of “career” acquisition in a contemporary youth cohort. Work and Occupations, 35,
Neumark, D., & Korenman, S. (1994). Sources of bias in women’s wage equations: Results using sibling data. Journal of Human Resources, 29,
Oppenheimer, V. K. (1997). Women’s employment and the gain to marriage: The specialization and trading model. Annual Review of Sociology, 23,
Polachek, S. (1981). Occupational self-selection: A human capital approach to sex differences in occupational structure. Review of Economics and Statistics, 63,
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Rindfuss, R. R. (1991). The young adult years: Diversity, structural change, and fertility. Demography, 28,
Rindfuss, R. R., Swicegood, C. G., & Rosenfeld, R. A. (1987). Disorder in the life course: How common and does it matter? American Sociological Review, 52,
Sayer, L. C., Bianchi, S. M., & Robinson, J. P. (2004). Are parents investing less in children? Trends in mothers’ and fathers’ time. American Journal of Sociology, 110,
Schoon, I., & Silbereisen, R. K. (Eds.). (2009). Transitions from school to work: Globalisation, individualisation, and patterns of diversity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shanahan, M. J. (2000). Pathways to adulthood in changing societies: Variability and mechanisms in life course perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, 26,
South, S. J., & Spitze, G. (1994). Housework in marital and nonmarital households. American Sociological Review, 59,
Staff, J., & Mortimer, J. T. (2007). Educational and work strategies from adolescence to early adulthood: Consequences for educational attainment. Social Forces, 85,
Taniguchi, H. (1999). The timing of childbearing and women’s wages. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61,
Ventura, S. J., & Bachrach, C. A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, 1940–1999. National Vital Statistics Reports, 48, (16). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Waldfogel, J. (1997). The effect of children on women’s wages. American Sociological Review, 62,
Waldfogel, J. (1998a). The family gap for young women in the United States and Britain: Can maternity leave make a difference? Journal of Labor Economics, 16,
Waldfogel, J. (1998b). Understanding the family gap in pay for women with children. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12,
White, L., & Rogers, S. J. (2000). Economic circumstances and family outcomes: A review of the 1990s. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62,
Wu, L. L., Bumpass, L. L., & Musick, K. (2001). Historical and life course trajectories of nonmarital childbearing. In L. L. Wu & B. Wolfe (Eds.), Out of wedlock: Causes and consequences of nonmarital fertility (pp. 2–48). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.