High DHA dosage from algae oil improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and is safe for type-2 diabetics
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Doughman, S.D., Ryan, A.S., Krupanidhi, S. et al. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries (2013) 33: 75. doi:10.1007/s13410-013-0125-3
- 164 Views
Postprandial refers to diet induced changes in plasma concentrations of sugars, amino acids and fats between 0 and 6 h following a meal. This review details the fat transport through lipoprotein particles and triglyceride fractions in the postprandial plasma. The long-chain omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is more active in postprandial plasma and is more abundantly incorporated into the surface phospholipid fraction of lipoproteins. A survey of controlled clinical trials in the literature demonstrates that 1,000 mg to 2,000 mg DHA daily is effective to treat hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), mixed dyslipidemia and most effectively controls elevated postprandial triglycerides (TG). TG is a marker for total fat in circulation. Omega-3 fatty acids lower fasting and postprandial TG, an activity first discovered in 1971 in Greenlandic Inuits. Low TG and high DHA were coincident with the absence of type 2 diabetes. It is now known that DHA is the major structural and functional omega-3 component of lipoproteins in human plasma. DHA is the omega-3 to most substantially increase by mass in the phospholipid fraction of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). DHA is most effective at raising HDL levels and improves the omega-3 index in red blood cells (RBC). DHA intake also correlates with greater than 25 % reductions of fasting TG and greater than 40 % reductions in postprandial TG. Postprandial HTG is common in the type 2 diabetes; therefore, we considered the safety of DHA from Schizochytrium sp. algae oil and the evidence for risk reduction of coronary vascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Recent clinical trials suggest high DHA intake from Chromista algae controls plasma TG, but does not appear to control glucocentric markers or cholesterol levels. DHA directly affects postprandial TG transport, but has little effect on insulin function and insulin resistance. Applications for use in South Asian diabetics are considered. 1,200 mg algae DHA daily over 3 months is an optimized program for direct control of postprandial HTG and is safe for type 2 diabetics.