Date: 31 Aug 2012

Diabetic nephropathy: associated risk factors in renal deterioration

This is an excerpt from the content

Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is now recognised as the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributes between 20 and 40 % of patients with chronic kidney disease on renal replacement therapy (dialysis), worldwide [1]. Clinically, microalbuminuria is considered as the earliest sign of evolving DN, which may become persistent and progressive, leading to proteinuria due to combination of several factors such as chronic hyperglycemia, uncontrolled hypertension, ethnicity, family history of renal disease, lack of early intervention and/or suboptimal glycemic control [2].

Established DN is defined as presence of persistent proteinuria of >0.5 gm/day, hypertension and a progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), leading to ESRD [3]. Traditionally, the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy has been described to go through five different stages such as glomerular hyperfiltration, incipient nephropathy, microalbuminuria, overt proteinuria and end-stage ...