Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL): an early marker for diabetic nephropathy
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipoprotein (NGAL) represents a novel biomarker for early identification of acute kidney injury. This study evaluates the usefulness of urine NGAL as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. This is a cross-sectional study which involved ninety patients with diabetes mellitus and thirty healthy controls. The diabetic patients were categorized into three groups based on their urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR); normoalbuminuria (<3.5 mg/mmol), microalbuminuria (3.5–35 mg/mmol), macroalbuminuria (>35 mg/mmol). In addition to urine NGAL, HbA1C, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, serum cystatin C, and urine protein were assessed to determine their correlation with urine NGAL. Data analysis was done by using SPSS and MiniTab. Urine NGAL was elevated in all groups of diabetic patients with respect to controls. It was increased proportionately to the severity of kidney function. It was also elevated in some normoalbuminuria diabetic patients. Analysis of correlation revealed that urine NGAL was not correlated with glycemic indices (HbA1C and fasting blood glucose). However, urine NGAL correlated significantly with cystatin C, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and inversely with eGFR. Besides, it is also shown to have a significant correlation with eGFR in advanced kidney disease (eGFR < 30 ml/min per 1.73 min2). Urine NGAL can be used as a non-invasive tool for the early detection and assessment of the severity of diabetic nephropathy.
- American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes (Position Statement). Diabetes Care 2004;27 (Suppl. 1):S15–S35.
- Cooper ME. Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Lancet. 1998;352:213–9. CrossRef
- DeFronzo RA. Diabetic nephropathy: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Diabetes Rev. 1995;3:510–64.
- Abbate M, Zoja C, Remuzzi G. How does proteinuria cause progressive renal damage? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:2974–84. CrossRef
- Devarajan P. Emerging biomarkers of acute kidney injury. Contrib Nephrol. 2007;156:203–12. CrossRef
- Uttenthal O. NGAL: a marker molecule for the distressed kidney? Clin Lab Internat. 2005;29:39–41.
- Cowland JB, Borregaard N. Molecular characterization and pattern of tissue expression of the gene for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from humans. Genomics. 1997;45:17–23. CrossRef
- Mishra J, Dent C, Tarabishi R, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a biomarker for acute renal injury after cardiac surgery. Lancet. 2005;365:1231–38. CrossRef
- National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39 (Suppl 1):S1–266.
- Mori K, Nakao K. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as the real-time indicator of active kidney damage. Kidney Int. 2007;71:967–70. CrossRef
- Bolignano D, Lacquaniti A, Coppolino G, Donato V, Fazio MR, Nicocia G, Buemi M. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as an early biomarker of nephropathy in diabetic patients. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2009;32:91–8. CrossRef
- Bolignano D, Donato V, Coppolino G, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a marker of kidney damage. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52:595–609. CrossRef
- Bonventre JV. Diagnosis of acute kidney injury: from classic parameters to new biomarkers. Contrib Nephrol. 2007;156:213– 19.
- Ronco C. N-GAL: diagnosing AKI as soon as possible. Crit Care. 2007;11:173. CrossRef
- Nielsen BS, Borregaard N, Bundgaard JR, et al. Induction of NGAL synthesis in epithelial cells of humancolorectal neoplasia and inflammatory bowel diseases. Gut. 1996;38:414–20. CrossRef
- Carlson M, Raab Y, Seveus L, et al. Human neutrophil lipocalin is a unique marker of neutrophil inflammation in ulcerative colitis and proctitis. Gut. 2002;50:501–6. CrossRef
- Xu SY, Pauksen K, Venge P. Serum measurements of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) discriminate between acute bacterial and viral infections. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1995;55:125–31. CrossRef
- Mitsnefes MM, Kathman TS, Mishra J, et al. Serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin as a marker of renal function in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22:101–08. CrossRef
- Suzuki M, Wiers KM, Klein-Gitelman MS, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a biomarker of disease activity in pediatric lupus nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:403–12. CrossRef
- Bolignano D, Coppolino G, Campo S, et al. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is associated with severity of renal disease in proteinuric patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:414–16. CrossRef
- Bolignano D, Coppolino G, Campo S, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27:373–78.
- Bolignano D, Lacquaniti A, Coppolino G, Campo S, Arena A, Buemi M. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin reflects the severity of renal impairment in subjects affected by chronic kidney disease. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31:255–58. CrossRef
- Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL): an early marker for diabetic nephropathy
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries
Volume 32, Issue 1 , pp 19-24
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Diabetic nephropathy
- Chronic kidney disease