Article

Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 442-451

Protective effects of higher cognitive reserve for neuropsychological and daily functioning among individuals infected with hepatitis C

  • Maiko SakamotoAffiliated withDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego
  • , Steven Paul WoodsAffiliated withDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego
  • , Michael KolessarAffiliated withSchool of Professional Psychology, Pacific University
  • , Daniel KrizAffiliated withSchool of Professional Psychology, Pacific UniversityInstitute on Development and Disability, Oregon Health & Science University
  • , J. Renee AndersonAffiliated withSchool of Professional Psychology, Pacific University
  • , Hannah OlavarriaAffiliated withResearch and Development Service, Portland VA Medical Center
  • , Anna W. SasakiAffiliated withGastroenterology Service, Portland VA Medical Center
  • , Michael ChangAffiliated withGastroenterology Service, Portland VA Medical CenterDepartment of Internal Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University
  • , Kenneth D. FloraAffiliated withPortland Gastroenterology Division, Oregon Clinic
    • , Jennifer M. LoftisAffiliated withResearch and Development Service, Portland VA Medical CenterDepartment of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University
    • , Marilyn HuckansAffiliated withDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San DiegoResearch and Development Service, Portland VA Medical CenterDepartment of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science UniversityBehavioral Health and Clinical Neurosciences Division, Portland VA Medical CenterPortland VA Medical Center Email author 

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Abstract

Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n = 19) or low (n = 20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery, Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System, and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression, and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection.

Keywords

Hepatitis C Cognitive reserve Neuropsychological assessment Daily functioning