A case of long-standing autoimmune type 1 diabetes with common variable immunodeficiency
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- Yamaoka, M., Kitamura, T., Moriyama, H. et al. Diabetol Int (2012) 3: 50. doi:10.1007/s13340-011-0049-4
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Several lines of evidence have suggested that pancreatic β-cell destruction is caused by inflammatory cellular responses mediated by T lymphocytes in individuals with type 1A diabetes. B lymphocytes, which play an important role in the production of autoantibodies to β-cell antigens such as insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or insulinoma associated antigen 2 (IA-2) in type 1A diabetes, are also known as professional antigen-presenting cells and T-lymphocyte activators. Here, we report a case of long-standing autoimmune type 1 diabetes with common variable immunodeficiency, which is known as a functional deficiency of B lymphocytes. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of hyperglycemia. He had suffered from frequent bacterial infections from early childhood. At 16 years old, he was diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency. At age 27, he experienced sudden-onset diabetic ketosis and was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay recently revealed that interferon-γ-producing T lymphocytes but not interleukin 4-producing T lymphocytes, which react with GAD and insulin B1-18, were present at increased levels in his peripheral blood at 51 years old. This case represents the longest reported interval between onset of type 1 diabetes and confirmation of cell-mediated autoimmunity against pancreatic β-cells in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.