Hormones and cytokines in childhood obesity
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Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem affecting both adults and children. Effective prevention and treatment modalities can be achieved by understanding the pathogenesis of obesity better. This review addresses some of the issues related to the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of obesity, energy balance and inflammation.
We reviewed current literature on this broad subject especially concentrating on the functions of the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of the childhood obesity. Using the key words “obesity, children, hormones, cytokines” publications and cross references were evaluated from PubMed database between 1957 and 2009.
In children, leptin and ghrelin are two hormones which have major influence on energy balance. Leptin is responsible from long term regulation of energy balance and ghrelin functions as an appetite stimulatory signal. In contrast to ghrelin, obestatin acts as an anorexigenic hormone by suppressing food intake. Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are the key regulators of inflammation in obesity. Increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels but decreased levels of adiponectin and IL-10 are associated with increased inflammation, tissue injury and complications of obesity.
Development, pathogenesis and complications of childhood obesity consist of complex mechanisms including numerous cytokines and hormones. New treatment modalities depend on understanding these complex mechanisms.
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- Hormones and cytokines in childhood obesity
Volume 47, Issue 10 , pp 829-839
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- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey
- 3. Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, 35340, Izmir, Turkey
- 2. Department of Social Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey