, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 139–152

Treatment of Dystonia


DOI: 10.1007/s13311-013-0231-4

Cite this article as:
Thenganatt, M.A. & Jankovic, J. Neurotherapeutics (2014) 11: 139. doi:10.1007/s13311-013-0231-4


Selecting the appropriate treatment for dystonia begins with proper classification of disease based on age, distribution, and underlying etiology. The therapies available for dystonia include oral medications, botulinum toxin, and surgical procedures. Oral medications are generally reserved for generalized and segmental dystonia. Botulinum toxin revolutionized the treatment of focal dystonia when it was introduced for therapeutic purposes in the 1980s. Surgical procedures are available for medication-refractory dystonia, markedly affecting an individual’s quality of life.

Key Words

Dystoniacervical dystoniablepharospasmtrihexyphenidylbotulinum toxindeep brain stimulation

Supplementary material

13311_2013_231_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (550 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 550 kb)

Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Parkinson’s Disease Center & Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of NeurologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA