, 3:3,
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Date: 16 Mar 2012

A Review of Exenatide: Optimizing Glycemic Control and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. With an increasing prevalence of obesity, this risk has increased further. Management of T2DM in obese patients is particularly challenging as treatment with the majority of glucose-lowering agents results in weight gain. Thus, the development of a therapeutic option which could improve glycemic control without weight gain or hypoglycemia, such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog exenatide, is a welcome addition to the currently available therapies in the management of T2DM. With recognition and better understanding of the role of incretin hormones in T2DM, exenatide was developed and introduced into clinical practice in 2005. Both randomized controlled trials and retrospective observational studies have shown that treatment with exenatide not only improves glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia, but also results in concurrent weight loss and the additional benefit of improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. This article will provide an overview of both short- and long-acting exenatide in the management of T2DM and associated cardiovascular risk factors.